DV's (daily values): reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels
DV's must be provided for: Fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates (total), fiber, protein, sodium, potassium, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, calcium and iron
The DV for total fat for a person eating a 2000 kcal/day is 30% (600 kcals/day)
Type 1 diabetes: Genetic; Less common; cells secrete little or no insulin so people have to take insulin shots in order to break down the glucose in their blood
- Causes: genes
- Symptoms: hyperglycemia, excessive thirst, frequent urination, significant weight loss despite increased appetite, electrolyte imbalances, diabetic acidosis (from excess ketone production), diabetic coma
- Risk factors: Not well understood; genetics; autoimmune destruction - viral infection, toxic chemicals, etc.
Type 2 diabetes: Acquired by unhealthy lifestyle/ high blood pressure; More common; Insulin works but the cells fail to respond to it
- Causes: Obesity, high blood pressure, poor diet
- Symptoms: Hyperglycemia, excessive thirst, frequent urination, increased appetite, weight gain
- Risk factors: Physical inactivity, age, obesity, family history
HDL sometimes referred to as good cholesterol transports cholesterol from body cells back to the liver where it can be used to make bile and other compounds. A higher concentration of HDL-cholesterol (greater than 60 mg/dl) is a negative risk factor for CVD, meaning it is a good thing to have high blood HDL. An HDL-cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dl) is a significant positive risk factor for heart disease, not a good thing.
LDL transports lipids and cholesterol to cells in the body. An elevated level of LDL-cholesterol, sometimes referred to as bad cholesterol, is a positive risk factor for CVD. Remember, the cholesterol in these lipoproteins is no different, but the proportion of cholesterol, triglycerides, and protein within the lipoprotein is different, and most importantly, the function of LDL is different. It is LDL that is involved in depositing cholesterol into the walls of blood vessels and thus producing plaque.
Two long chain omega-3 fatty acids (20 and 22 carbons in length) with unique properties are EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaeonoic acid). These can be made in body cells from linoleic acid but are also found preformed in fish, shellfish, sea algae and human breast milk.
When consumed pre-formed in the diet, EPA and DHA are reported to have beneficial effects that may decrease risk of heart disease by improving blood lipids, lower HBP, reduce inflammation, and prevent blood clot formation (such as with a stroke or heart attack.)
EPA and DHA, either pre-formed in the die or made from linoleic acid, are important for normal growth and development. Much research centers on their roles in the structure and function of eyes and brain. They are also precursors to eicosanoids. Eicosanoids are a group of molecules that have hormone-like activity in many cells of the body. Eicosanoids are produced in extremely small amounts in the cells, and then, unlike hormones, act in those cells to regulate some physiological function. Eicosanoids affect regulatory processes in immunity, reproduction, and blood clotting to name a few.
In terms of their benefit to heart disease, one hypothesis is that eicosanoids, namely prostaglandins, may play a role in inhibiting the clotting response during atherosclerosis leading to a stroke or heart attack.
ADH - with a drop in blood volume, blood is concentrated with sodium, which signals the brain to release ADH. ADH tells the kidney to reabsorb more water from the nephron tubules back into the blood to dilute sodium concentration.
Dehydration can also reduce blood flow (lower blood pressure)
The kidney responds to low blood pressure by releasing the enzyme renin into the blood, which activates the blood protein angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin. Renin causes the kidneys to reabsorb sodium. Sodium reabsorption is always accompanied by water retention, which helps to raise blood volume and blood pressure.
In addition to its role in sodium retention, renin hydrolyzes a protein from the liver angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. AI is inactive until another enzyme converts it to its active form, AII. AII is a powerful vasoconstrictor (narrows the diameters of the blood pressure, which raises blood pressure.)
AII stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands. Aldosterone signals the kidneys to excrete potassium and to retain more sodium, and therefore water, because when sodium moves, water follows. Again, the effect is that when more water is needed, less is excreted.
ORT: Electrolyte imbalances can occur when too much Na+, Cl-, and K+ are lost through excessive vomiting, diarrhea, and/or sweating. In developing nations where sanitation may be poor, diarrhea can be a major cause of death for children, especially young children. Children actually die of dehydration because water absorption in the digestive tract is often shut down by the bacterial infection. A simple solution of 1 cup of boiled water, a pinch of salt (NaCl), and 2 tsp. of sugar (sucrose) has been used as oral rehydration therapy to restore electrolytes and reduce dehydration. The water is absorbed into the body via glucose's active transporter system (not affected by the infection) which has sodium as the co-transporter, thus dragging water along with it. The child's parent can prepare this solution at home and spoon feed it to their sick child without having to travel to a clinic for intravenous rehydration. Since its formulation in the 1970's, ORT has saved hundreds of thousands of lives around the world. AI for sodium: 1500 mg/d for younger adults, decreases to 1300 for 51 - 70 year olds and 1200 for those over 70.
UL for sodium: 2300 mg/day
DV based on 2400mg/d
Add little/no salt, prepare foods w/ less salt by trying other sodium-free spices, select fresh or frozen veggies or low-sodium canned varieties, cook w/ less salt, read food labels for high sodium DV's, use less often or find alternate lower sodium varieties of high sodium foods and condiments such as: processed meats, pickles, olives, sauerkraut, snack food w/ visible salt, canned soups, soy sauce, BBQ sauce, ketchup, cheeses
Potassium, magnesium and calcium
DASH: emphasis on fruits, veggies and low-fat dairy foods; low in saturated/total fat, low in cholesterol
Diet includes whole grains, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, and has reduced amounts of fats, red meats, sweets, sugared beverages
Grains: 6-8 oz, major source of energy and fiber
Veggies: 2-2.5 cups; Rich source of K, Mg and fiber
Fruits: 2-2.5 cups; Important source of K, Mg and fiber
Reduced/Fat-free dairy: 2-3 c; Major source of Ca and protein
Lean meats, poultry, fish: 6 oz. or less; Rich source of protein and Mg
Nuts, seeds, legumes: 4-5 oz per week; Rich source of energy, K, Mg, protein and fiber
Formation of ATP in energy metabolism, bone mineralization, building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of teeth, functioning of immune system
Is part of hundreds of metalloenzymes
Acts antagonistically to Ca in muscle contraction and blood clotting; Calcium promotes the processes, while Mg inhibits them this interaction helps regulate BP and lung function
Nuts, legumes, whole grains, dark green veggies, seafood, chocolate, cocoa
Zygote: The newly fertilized ovum is called a zygote. It begins as a single cell and rapidly divides to become a blastocyst. During the first week, the blastocyst floats down into the uterus where it will embed itself in the inner uterine wall - a process known as implantation. Cell division continues at an amazing rate.
Embryo: The developing infant from 2 - 8 weeks after conception. This is when the development of the placenta, umbilicus and amniotic sac begin. At first, the number of cells in the embryo doubles about every 24 hours; later the rate slows, and only one doubling occurs during the final 10 weeks of pregnancy. At 8 weeks, the 1 ¼ embryo has a complete central nervous system, beating heart, digestive system, well-defined fingers and toes, and the beginnings of facial features.
Fetus: The developing infant from 8 weeks after conception until term. The fetus continues to grow during the next 7 months. Each organ grows to maturity according to its own schedule, with greater intensity at some times than others. Fetal growth is phenomenal: weight increases from less than an ounce to about 7 ½ pounds.
Pre-term infant: An infant born at 37 weeks or less
Full-term infant: Most successful pregnancies are full-term lasting 38 - 42 weeks - and produce a healthy weighting 6 ½ - 8 pound baby.
Herbal supplements: should be taken only after consultation w/ a doctor, many are harmless but some are very dangerous; little testing has been done on the effects of supplements on the developing fetus
Alcohol use: no alcohol use at all; can cause fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol spectrum syndrome; behavioral and cognitive abnormalities
Fish consumption: mercury in fish can harm brain and nervous system; fish however is an important source of the long chain fatty acids DHA and EPA so its good for the fetal brain and nervous system; the FDA carefully weighed the risks and benefits and has the following recommendations:
Avoid: shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish/golden snapper
Limit to 12 oz/week: cooked or canned seafood, including light tuna, or to 6 ounces cooked or canned of white, albacore tuna
Supplements of fish oil are not recommended (risk of contaminants)
Listeriosis: to avoid food-borne illnesses such as Listeriosis, pregnant women should not eat or drink unpasteurized milk, milk products, or juices; raw or undercooked eggs, meat, poultry; or raw sports. Pregnant women should only eat certain deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated to steaming hot.