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The period before the civil war. During this time a diverse mix of reformers dedicated themselves to new causes.
Second Great Awakening
A religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States, which expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved through revivals.
President of Yale College in Connecticut. His revivals motivated a generation of young men to become evangelical preachers.
Henry David Thoreau
Walden, Civil Disobedience. an American author, poet, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
Brook Farm; George Ripley
a utopian experiment in communal living in the United States in the 1840s. It was founded by former Unitarian minister George Ripley and his wife Sophia Ripley at the Ellis Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts in 1841 and was inspired in part by the ideals of Transcendentalism, a religious and cultural philosophy based in New England.
an American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.
an American Transcendentalist and reforming minister of the Unitarian church. A reformer and abolitionist, his own words and quotes he popularized would later influence Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King, Jr.
a religious sect originally thought to be a development of the Protestant Quakers. Founded upon the teachings of Ann Lee, the group was known for their emphasis on social equality and rejection of sexual relations, which led to their precipitous decline in numbers after their heavy involvement in the running of orphanages was curtailed. With few surviving members, Shakers today are mostly known for their cultural contributions (especially style of music and furniture).
Robert Owen; New Harmony
a social reformer and one of the founders of socialism and the cooperative movement. A secular experiment that was made to provide an answer to the problems of inequity and alientation caused by the Industrial Revolution.
Joseph Henry Noyes; Onieda
After undergoing a religious conversion, he started a cooperative community in New York. Dedicated to an ideal of perfect social and economic equality. Could reproduce. Silverware.
Charles Fourier; Phalanxes
a French utopian socialist and philosopher. Is credited by modern scholars with having originated the word féminisme in 1837. Advocated people share work and living arrangements. died out, people too individualistic
an American newspaper editor, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, a reformer, and a politician. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as opposition to slavery and a host of reforms ranging from vegetarianism to socialism. Interested in Charles Fourier.
George Caleb Bingham
an American artist whose paintings of American life in the frontier lands along the Missouri River exemplify the Luminist style. Genre painter.
an English-born American artist. He is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century. Cole's Hudson River School, as well as his own work, was known for its realistic and detailed portrayal of American landscape and wilderness, which feature themes of romanticism and naturalism.
an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. He was a central figure in the Hudson River School of American landscape painters
Hudson River School
a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area. Cole, Church, Mount
an American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. He was best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle"
James Fenimore Cooper
a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, often regarded as his masterpiece.
an American novelist and short story writer. Wrote the Scarlet Letter. writing centers around New England, many works featuring moral allegories with a Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism
a belief held by some Christian denominations that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth in which "Christ will reign" for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state
Church of Latter-Day Saints; Mormons
derives from the Book of Mormon, a sacred text published in 1830 regarded by the faith as a supplemental Testament to the Bible. Brigham Young as the successor to founder Joseph Smith, Jr.
Joseph Smith; Brigham Young
Joseph Smith founded Mormonism. Brigham moved the Mormans to Salt Lake City.
19th century in Europe, in art and literature, stressed intuition and feelings, individual acts of heroism, and the study of nature
a term associated with a group of new ideas in literature that emerged in New England in the early-to-middle 19th century. core beliefs was the belief in an ideal spiritual state that "transcends" the physical and empirical and is realized only through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions
Ralph Waldo Emerson
an American lecturer, essayist, and poet, best remembered for leading the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thought through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.
a speech given by Ralph Waldo Emerson on August 31, 1837, to the Phi Beta Kappa Society in Harvard.
a social movement against the use of alcoholic beverages. Temperance movements may criticize excessive alcohol use, promote complete abstinence, or pressure the government to enact anti-alcohol legislation.
American temperance society
The society benefited from, and contributed to, a reform sentiment in much of the country promoting the abolition of slavery, expanding women's rights, temperance, and the improvement of society. Possibly because of its association with the abolitionist movement, the society was most successful in northern states
Womens Christian Temperance Union
the oldest continuing non-sectarian women's organization worldwide. Organized at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio in 1874,the group spearheaded the crusade for prohibition
an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.
a renowned American pioneer in the education of the deaf. He helped fund and was for many years the principal of the first institution for the education of the deaf in North America. When opened in 1817, it was called the "American Asylum for Deaf-Mutes" in Connecticut, but it is now known as the American School for the Deaf.
Samuel Gridley Howe
a prominent 19th century United States physician, abolitionist, and an advocate of education for the blind.
persons worked during the day in groups and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times.
an American education reformer, and a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833. He served in the Massachusetts Senate from 1834 to 1837. In 1848, after serving as Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education since its creation, he was elected to the US House of Representatives. Mann was a brother-in-law to author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
a series of graded primers that were widely used as textbooks in American schools from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, and are still used today in some private schools and in homeschooling.
an American Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer, and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 19th century but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political advocacy.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.
Seneca Falls Convention
an early and influential women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York. days and six sessions, and included a lecture on law, a humorous presentation, and multiple discussions about the role of women in society
Susan b. Anthony
a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States
American Colonization Society
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa. It helped to found the colony of Liberia in 1821-22, as a place for freedmen.
William Lloyd Garrison; The Liberator
a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
a minor political party in the United States in the 1840s, 1850s, and 1860s. The party was an early advocate of the abolitionist cause. It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society to advocate the view that the Constitution was an anti-slavery document
Frederick Douglass; the North Star
an American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining renown for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing.
an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the American Civil War. After escaping from slavery, into which she was born, she made thirteen missions to rescue more than 70 slaves using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage.
an anti-slavery activist who was active in the New York Committee of Vigilance and the Underground Railroad. As an "African-American printer in New York City during the 1830s", who "was the prototype for black activist journalists of his time". He claimed to have led over six hundred people, including friend and fellow abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to freedom in the North.
the self-given name, from 1843, of Isabella Baumfree, an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist. Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, New York. Her best-known speech, Ain't I a Woman?, was delivered in 1851 at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio
an African-American abolitionist, conductor on the Underground Railroad, writer, historian and civil rights activist. began working as a clerk for the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society
an audaciously outspoken Black American activist who demanded the immediate end of slavery in the new nation. A leader within the Black enclave in Boston, Massachusetts. David Walker's Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World: a call to "awaken my brethren" to the power within Black unity and struggle. recognized for his critical contribution to ending chattel slavery in the United States. one of the most important political and social documents of the 19th century. They credit Walker for exerting a radicalizing influence on the abolitionist movements of his day and beyond. He has inspired many generations of Black leaders and activists of all backgrounds.
Henry Highland Garnet
An advocate of militant abolitionism, was a prominent member of the abolition movement that led against moral suasion toward more political action. Renowned for his skills as a public speaker, he urged blacks to take action and claim their own destinies. was the first black minister to preach to the United States House of Representatives.
an American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 56 deaths among their victims, the largest number of white fatalities to occur in one uprising in the antebellum southern United States.
American Peace Society
is a pacifist group founded upon the initiative of William Ladd. It was the first nationally based secular peace organization in the United States history. The society organized peace conferences and regularly published a periodical entitled Advocate of Peace.
dietary reform (eating whole wheat bread and sylvesters crackers to promote good digestion)
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