23 terms

Social Cognition

pg 509 - 523
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social psychology
branch of psychology that studies the effect of social variables on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions and motives; also studies group and intergroup phenonmena
social cognition
process by which people select, interpret and remember social information
social perception
process by which a person comes to know or perceive the personal attributes
attribution theory
social-cognitive approach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate casual explanations
covariation model
theory that suggests that people attributes a behavior to a casual factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occurred but was absent whenever it didn't occur
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
dual tendency of observers to underestimate the impact of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors on a person's behavior
self-serving bias
an attributional bias in which people tend to take credit for their successes and deny responsibility for their failures.
self-fulfilling prophecy
a prediction made about some future behavior or event that modifies interaction so as to produce what is expected
social role
a socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or a group
rule
behavioral guideline for acting in a certain way in a certain situation
social norm
the expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable and appropriate attitudes and behaviors
conformity
the tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, and values of other members of a reference group
informational influence
group effects that arise from individual's desire to be correct and right and to understand how best to act in a given situation
normative influence
group effects that arise from individual's desire to be liked, accepted, and approved by others
norm crystallization
the convergence of the expectations of a group of individuals into a common perspective as they talk and carry out activities together
group polarization
tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the decision that would be made by the members acting alone
groupthink
tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undesirable input so that a consensus may be reached, especially if it is in line with the leader's viewpoint
assessing covariation with respect to 3 dimensions of information
distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus
distinctiveness
refers to whether the behavior is specific to a particular situation
consistency
refers to whether the behavior occurs repeatedly in response to this situation
consensus
refers to whether other people also produce he same behavior in the same situation
Solomon Asch
created circumstances in which participants made judgments under conditions in which the physical reality was absolutely clear--but the rest of a group reported that they saw that reality differently
information-influence model
suggests that group members contribute different information to a decision
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