44 terms

General Linguistics

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Phonology-
The system of relationships among the speech sounds that constitute the fundamental components of a language.
Phoneme-
Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguished one word from another, for example: p, d, b and t: pad, bad, pat, bat.
Articulator-
Any of the vocal organs above the larynx, including the tongue, lips, teeth, and hand palate.
Place of Articulation-
The point of contact where an articulatory gesture, an active articulator, and a passive location meet.
Consonant-
A letter in the alphabet.
Voiced-
In which the vocal folds vibrate.
Unvoiced-
A voiceless sound is one in which the vocal folds do not vibrate.
Stop-
To come to an end- of a sentence or of the speech; time of breath.
Fricative-
Denoting a type of consonant made by the friction of breath in a narrow opening, producing a turbulent air flow.
Affricate-
Consonant sounds made up of a stop. Example: t or s.
vowel-
A letter representing a vowel sound: a,e , i ,o, u. Mouth does not close. Every word allows a breath.
Onomastics-
The study of the history and origin of proper names, especially personal names.
Sound Change-
Any process of language change that affect pronunciation.
Assimilation-
The fact of a sound being made more like another in the same or next word.
Dissimilation-
Similar consonants or vowels in a word become less similar.
Drop-
Fall vertically- in tone/speech.
Metathesis-
The transposition of sounds of letters in a word.
Morphology-
The study of the forms of words.
Morpheme-
A meaningful morphological unit of a language that cannot be further divided.
Root-
A word or element from which other grow through the addition of prefixes and suffixes.
Affix-
A morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Prefix-
One kind of affix.
suffix-
Another kind of affix.
Syntax-
The study of rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.
Semantics-
The meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text.
Denotation-
The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests.
Connotation-
An idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning.

Grammar-
Grammar-
The whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general, usually taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflections) and sometimes also phonology and semantics.
Prescriptive-
Attempting to impose rules of correct usage on the users of a language.
Descriptive-
Denoting or relating to an approach to language analysis that describes accents, forms, structures, and usage without making value judgments.
Regional Dialect-
A distinct form of a language spoken in a particular geographical area. Also known as topolect.
Social Dialect-
A variety of language used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Phonology-
The branch of linguistics that deals with systems of sounds (including or excluding phonetics), especially in a particular language.
Three areas of dialect variation:
Grammar-
A particular analysis of the system and structure of language or of a specific language.
Three areas of dialect variation:
Lexicon-
The vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge.
It is also, a dictionary, especially of Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, or Arabic.
Style Shifting-
A term in sociolinguistics referring to alternation between styles of speech included in a linguistic repertoire of an individual speaker.
African American Language (AAE—
A language variety that has also been identified at different times in dialectology and literary studies as Black English, black dialect, and Negro (nonstandard) English.
Pidgin-
Denoting a simplified form of a language, especially as used by a nonnative speaker.
Creole-
A mother tongue formed from the contact of two languages through an earlier pidgin stage.
Rules of AAE:
Grammar:
Absence of the verb "to be" (linking verbs)
Use of "be" to show duration
Use of "been" to show duration
Lack of subject verb agreement
Absence of the possessive form ('s)
Phonological:
Consonant cluster reduction
Th as "f" or "v"
Slang-
Socially unacceptable words- a stigmatized dialect; used by lower class. Understood by a small group of people. Informal.
Colloquialism
Informal; mainstream use, but not part of the dictionary.
Jargon
Term that can be slang, but does not have to be slang. Specialized language usually used/formed by a profession.