Social Psychology: Chapter 8
Terms in this set (39)
According to Marvin Shaw, which of the following would most likely constitute a group?:
A. six people riding a city bus.
B. eight people working individually in a computer room.
C. a pair of jogging companions.
D. five people waiting for different buses at a bus stop.
In a park, a guy you do not know sits near you. His mere presence affects your behavior even though he is doing nothing. In the context of social facilitation, this person is bet described as a(n):
C. in-group member.
Because of the relationship between crowding and arousal, you are likely to _______ on a difficult exam in a densely packed classroom;
A. do well.
B. do poorly.
C. do average.
You have noticed that when you are at the gym, your exercise routine is not affected by how many other people are there. However, it is affected when other people are watching you exercise. This pattern in your behavior is what social psychologists call:
A. groupthink effect.
B. self-serving bias.
C. evaluation apprehension.
D. social loafing.
Sam has a tendency to contribute little effort to group assignments, as he thinks others will be sure to pick up the slack in an effort to get a good grade. This is an example of:
A. social facilitation.
B. social loafing.
D. egocentric bias.
At your factory job, output was measured at the end of every day by how much the team of workers you belonged to produced. Because of this evaluation procedure, your behavior was characterized by _______; now that a new manager has taken over and each individual worker's output is measured by a computer, your behavior is now characterized by _______;
A. deindividuation; groupthink.
B. groupthink; deindividuation.
C. social loafing; social facilitation.
D. social facilitation; social loafing.
People are more likely to exhibit social loafing:
A. they find the task challenging.
B. rewards are divided according to individual effort.
C. rewards are divided equally regardless of individual effort.
D. they are individually monitored.
In which of the following situations will deindividuation most likely occur?:
A. when the group size is large.
B. when individuals in the group are completely self-aware of their activities.
C. when individuals lose their sense of anonymity.
D. when there is an absence of distracting activities.
Using a disguised name, Ben sends threat mails and bullies his school friends on various online forums. This is an example of deindividuation that is primarily based on ______.
A. group size.
B. physical anonymity.
C. distracting activities.
One effect of deindividuation is:
A. diminished self-restraint.
B. increased self-awareness
C. social facilitation.
D. a risky shift.
Initial research on risk taking found that group discussion leads to:
A. more caution than individuals would take.
B. more risk than the average individual would take.
C. enhanced group members' initial leaning.
D. group moderation
Teresa has joined the campus Amnesty International Group, and after attending a few of the meetings now feels even more passionate about human rights. Social psychologists would explain the change in Teresa's opinions using:
A. social facilitation.
C. minority influence
D. group polarization.
The fact that active participation in discussion produces more attitude change is best explained by:
A. the concept of informational influence.
B. the social role theory.
C. the cognitive miser theory.
D. a decrease in pluralistic ignorance.
When people learn about others' positions, without making a prior commitment and without discussing their own position, they will:
A. often take a reverse position.
B. not adjust their own position.
C. adjust their responses to maintain a socially favorable position.
D. pretend they "knew it all along".
Julio is a directive leader of a highly cohesive student group on campus. When discussing important policy decisions, the group will be at greatest risk for groupthink if it is also:
A. isolated from dissenting viewpoints.
B. composed of majority and minority students.
C. well-informed regarding both sides of the issue.
D. aware of the dangers of making wrong decisions.
Social comparison is more likely to sway responses on:
A. issues that have a factual element.
B. moderate, rather than severe issues.
C. value-laden judgements.
D. complex, rather than simple issues.
Research indicates that minorities are most influential when they:
A. make use of two-sided rather than one-sided appeals.
B. have defected from the majority.
C. concur with any illusion of unanimity.
D. show respect for the majority opinion.
Gina is a highly effective leader who excels in delegating authority, motivating those under her authority, and providing support. Gina excels in:
A. social leadership.
B. laissez-faire leadership
C. task leadership
D. goal leadership
Research on leadership indicates that:
A. many effective leaders of a laboratory groups and large corporations exhibit behaviors that efficiently suppress minority views.
B. effective supervisors score high on both task and social leadership.
C. the most effective leaders typically deviate from a group's standards or norms.
D. transformational leaders lack the capacity to inspire or motivate others to commit to themselves to the group's mission.
While sitting in a meeting, John is becoming more and more uncomfortable with the group consensus. Not wanting to make waves, though, he withholds his opinion in favor of the groups comfort. This is an example of:
A. having a mindguard.
B. being a free rider.
two or more people who interact with and influence one another
social facilitation (original)
performing simple/well learned tasks better when others are present
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others; most likely response
concern for how others are evaluating us
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
the loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension in a group setting
enhancement of members' pre-existing tendencies; strengthening of members average tendencies
evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
the tendency to withhold information or opinions in group discussions
minority slowness effect
the tendency of those who hold a minority opinion to express that opinion less quickly than people who hold the majority opinion
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence