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Child Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (91)
How much weight do newborns lose within the first few days?
At 5 months, how much does an infant weigh?
around 15 pounds (their weight has doubled since birth)
At 1 year old, how much does an infant weigh?
around 22 pounds (their weight has tripled since birth)
At 2 years old, how much does an infant weigh?
around 26-32 pounds (their weight has quadrupled since birth)
growth from "head to tail"
brain develops sooner than the rest of the body
growth from the center of the body outward
organs develop quicker than the outside of the body
skills go from global to specific and distinct
response to pain -- when babies feel pain, they cannot pinpoint where the pain is coming from like adults can
principle of independence of systems
different body systems grow at different rates
nervous system grows more rapidly than the muscle/skeletal system
neurons die off due to lack of stimulation
the process of forming a myelin sheath around a nerve to allow impulses to move more quickly
degree to which a developing structure of behavior is modifiable
How much do newborns sleep during the day?
16-17 hours per day in 2 hour blocks
no discernible sleep pattern
At 2-4 months, what happens to an infant's sleep schedule?
their sleep pattern emerges
At 4-6 months, what happens to an infant's sleep schedule?
they start to sleep longer at night
At 6 months to 1 year, what happens to an infant's sleep schedule?
they begin to sleep through the night
What are some of the benefits of breast feeding?
breast milk is easy to digest
it contains essential nutrients
it helps the immune system
the child receives more emotional benefit
child has less of a chance of getting ear infections, allergies, and/or asthma
What are some of the benefits of bottle feeding?
formula is more convenient for working mothers
fathers have more involvement
sometimes necessary for mothers with certain health problems
has no long-term negative consequences
fine motor skills
grasping, holding, and manipulating objects
gross motor skills
motor skills that involve large-muscle activities, such as walking, sitting up, or crawling
FTT (failure to thrive)
failure to gain weight within the normal limits
wasting away due to lack of nutrients
typically a result of a family not having access to good foods
body attacks itself and gets proteins from that
Nonorganic FTT (failure to thrive)
infant stops growing due to lack of stimulation and attention
tendency to return to genetically determined pattern of growth
Describe the visual abilities in infants
least mature sense
newborns cannot see past 20 feet (20/600)
by 6 months old, 20/50 vision and peripheral vision have developed
prefer contrasts and patterns from birth
20/20 by 3-5 years old
At 3 1/2 months old, describe a child's auditory abilities
they can discriminate parents voices
At 4 1/2 months old, describe a child's auditory abilities
they are able to recognize their name
At 6-12 months old, describe a child's auditory abilities
they can limit sound discriminations to native language
At 12-18 months old, describe a child's auditory abilities
their sound localization is fully developed
stimulation of the sense organs and transmission of this information to the brain
interpretation of stimuli from the sense organs by the brain
the tendency to perceive objects as the same even though the sensations produced by them may differ when, for example, they differ in position or distance
List the 4 distinct stages believed by Piaget
concrete operational (7-11)
formal operational (11+)
action, pattern, or mental structure involved in acquisition or organization of knowledge
adapts and changes with development
incorporation of new knowledge into existing schemes
modification of schemes due to new information/knowledge
Substage 1: Simple Reflexes (0-1 month)
reflexive schemes - modify based on experience
few purposeful actions, everything happens more by chance
substage 2: primary circular reactions (1-4 months)
primary - actions on body
circular - repetitive actions
start to control reflexes and develop schemes by receptive motor habits
Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)
secondary - objects
circular - repetitive actions
accidentally does something with an object and intentionally repeats
start to observe impact on the external world
Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8-12 months)
begin to imitate others
can make new behavior occur on purpose
sense of anticipation
Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)
experimentation - trial and error behaviors
"mini scientist" - vary actions to see different effects
Substage 6: Invention of New Means through Mental Combinations (18-24 months)
mental exploration - child can think through solutions
symbolic imitation and play - uses a stick as a sword, plays "dress up"
What is a developmental quotient (DQ)?
an overall developmental score of 4 domains -- motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, and personal/social skills
infant's DQ is not predictive of his/her later IQ
conscious memory of facts and experiences
unconscious or automatic memory that is usually stored via habits, emotional responses, routine procedures, and various sensations
communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, and other nonverbal means
At 2 months old, what initial sounds is a child making?
cooing (vowel sounds)
At 6 months old, what initial sounds is a child making?
babbling (consonant and vowel sounds)
At 10-12 months old, what initial sounds is a child making?
echolalia (repeating consonant/vowel combos)
At 10-14 months old, what sounds is a child making?
starting to say first words
At 15 months, how many words is a child saying?
around 10 words
At 16-24 months, how many words is a child saying?
"naming explosion" -- vocabulary increases drastically
At what age do children start saying their first full sentences?
one word used to convey the whole phrase
"dada" vs. "there goes dada"
use of a few essential words to convey an idea
"give ball", "we go"
the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning
sees a cat, but says "dog"
the overly restrictive use of words
only 1 doll = "dolly", not multiple dolls
apply rules of grammar rigidly
"goes" vs. "went"
Learning Theory (skinner)
language learned through modeling and reinforcement of babbling
Nativist Approach (Chomsky)
a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development
nature perspective and language acquisition device
the view that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language
What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?
infants prefer comfort over attachment
What doe Ainsworth's Strange Situation illustrate?
strength of attachment between a child and mother
Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened
instantly seek mom out when she returns
infants who seem unresponsive to the parent when they are present, are usually not distressed when she leaves, and avoid the parent when they return
pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return.
inconsistent and contradictory responses
seem dazed, confused, or disoriented
actions causing pain and physical injury
sexual molestation, exploitation, and intercourse
not providing basic physical and emotional needs
failure to provide adequate food, shelter, or clothing
permitting or forcing a child to be truant
failure to provide needed medical care
failure to provide adequate nurturance and emotional support
actions that impair the child's emotional, social, or intellectual functioning
actions that are harmful or threatening
In the US in 2016, how many reports of abuse/neglect were filed?
4.1 million reports
In the US in 2016, how many unique victims were filed?
In the US in 2016, how many fatalities were filed?
What are the parental risk factors involved in abuse?
parental stress, depression, substance abuse, parent history of being abused, lack of education (parenting skills), lack of resources
What are some of the outcomes of abuse/neglect?
injury/death, behavioral problems, delays in development, academic problems, anxiety, depression, suicidal gestures
later in life... relationship problems, drug and alcohol abuse, work-related problems
What are some of the associated features associated with autism?
sensory/perceptual, eating, sleeping abnormalities and unusual dears, behavior problems
What are some of the causes of autism?
current evidence suggests biological basis including genetic factors and brain abnormalities
well controlled scientific studies strongly suggest that vaccines are NOT a cause of autism
What are some of the treatment methods of autism?
higher IQ, language skills, and treatment initiation at an earlier age -- better long term outcomes
intensive early intervention based on learning theory (applied behavior analysis)
When do children start to smile?
reflexive at birth
social smile at 6-8 weeks
When do children begin to cry?
reflexive at first then different types
physical needs first then cognitive & emotional
When does children's emotional regulation develop?
ability to control and cope with strong emotions
What is the mirror test?
a measure of self-awareness
the test gauges self-awareness by determining whether an animal can recognize its own reflection in a mirror as an image of itself
wariness infants display with an unfamiliar
appears 5-7 months, peaks 9-12 months, declines 18-24 months
distress displayed by infants when a primary caregiver departs
appears 7-8 months, peaks at 12-18 months, slowly declines over time
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-18 months)
depends on how well child's needs are met
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 months-3 years)
independence and autonomy if permitted to explore
shame and self-doubt if restricted or overprotected
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