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A person may shoplift an item of clothing from a department store and be apprehended and labeled as a "thief," subsequently accept that label, and then go on to shoplift more in the future. This future behavior is an example of __________.
According to Merton's strain theory, __________ occurs when people accept society's goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them.
According to Merton's strain theory, __________ occurs when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them yet advocate an alternative set of goals or means.
__________ refers to the use of negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and set forth the punishments for rule breakers and nonconformists.
External social control
Which function of deviance is illustrated by the recent Black Lives Matter protesters?
Deviance promotes social change.
Based on the symbolic interactionist theory of sociologists Charles H. Cooley and George H. Mead, the __________ theory states that deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants, and they, in turn, come to accept the marker placed upon them and begin to act accordingly.
The __________ is compiled by the FBI and is the major source of information on crimes reported in the United States.
Uniform Crime Report
The median age of an individual committing __________ is typically older than that of those committing other types of crimes.
Sociologist __________ believed that deviance is rooted in societal factors such as rapid social change and lack of social integration among people. As social integration (bonding and community involvement) decreased, deviance and crime increased.
People in which of these racial/ethnic groups have been the most overrepresented in official crime statistics?
A young woman graduates from high school with honors and attends a prestigious university, where she completes her degree; she gets a good job; she marries and starts planning for the future. This woman's behavior is an example of __________.
________ argues that deviant behavior is learned in personal interaction with friends and family.
The sociological term for a spoiled or devalued social identity is __________.
Applying Merton's strain theory, skid-row alcoholics and drug addicts illustrate the concept of __________.
_________ seeks to reduce criminal activity by instilling a fear of punishment in the general public.
Differential association explains________________________________.
how one may be socialized into deviance
Organized crime thrives primarily because________________________.
there is a great demand for illegal goods and services
Hirschi's control theory is based on the importance of __________ in determining the likelihood of deviant behavior.
_________ argue that the lifestyles considered deviant by political and economic elites are most likely to be defined as illegal.
________ is defined as "the calculated, unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective."
__________ is the term for any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
From a sociological perspective, definitions of deviance originate_______________.
with the people who witness or judge the behavior
Becker coined the term __________ to refer to those who use their own perspectives on "right" and "wrong" to create the rules about what constitutes deviant or conventional behavior.
In contemporary societies, the primary mechanism of external social control is __________.
the criminal justice system
The ________ theory of deviance states that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of deviant behavior and concludes that the benefits outweigh the risks.
_________ crimes include offenses such as prostitution, illegal gambling, and pornography.
Research shows that __________ are more likely to be perceived as members of the dangerous classes and receive stricter sentences in criminal courts.
young, single, urban males
A socioeconomically disadvantaged teenager decides that she must resort to crime in order to buy some clothes she wants. This teenager's behavior is an example of __________.
_________ refers to the use of personal judgment by police officers, prosecutors, judges, and other criminal justice system officials regarding whether and how to proceed in a given situation.
A __________ is a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
A __________ is a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
Teacher, student, professional athlete, rock musician, and homeless person are all examples of __________.
________ theorists do not believe that social institutions work for the common good of everyone in society. They emphasize that social institutions are most likely to meet the needs of those with the greatest amount of power in a society.
he sociological term for a set of social relationships that link one individual to others is __________.
Amber is a first grade teacher, a daughter, a wife, a mother, a Presbyterian, a soccer coach, and a Kansas resident. Taken together, all of these socially defined positions constitute her __________.
The expectations for being a college student include attending class, completing assignments, and being involved in campus activities. These expectations are an example of a __________.
Which of these statements about social structure is false?
a. Social structure creates stability within society.
b. Social structure gives us the ability to interpret the social situations we encounter.
c. A predictable social structure makes it easier to develop one's self-concept.
d. Social structure creates relationships that are generally equal.
Correct d. Social structure creates relationships that are generally equal.
Which of these is not true about postindustrial society?
A Production of goods within the society is mechanized.
b. There has been an information explosion.
c. Most people work in service or information-related occupations.
d. Knowledge becomes a commodity.
Which of these statements about personal space is false?
A space is less important than other forms of communication, and violations of personal space are easily ignored.
b. The amount of space that one prefers varies from one culture to another.
c. Age, gender, and type of relationship are factors affecting the norms for personal space.
d. Physical space is an important component of communication.
a Space is less important than other forms of communication, and violations of personal space are easily ignored
Carlos is a freshman at the local college. As a student, he is feeling pressure. He wants to party like the rest of his fraternity brothers, but at the same time, he wants to maintain his 4.0 grade point average. Sociologists would say that Carlos is experiencing _________.
Occupation is an example of a(n) _______ status.
__________ theorists maintain that in capitalistic societies, where a few people control the labor of many, the social structure reflects a system of relationships of domination and subordination.
A __________ is a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties, and it exists independently of the specific people occupying the position
Charles has a final exam in the evening at a time when he is supposed to be working. That same evening, Stephanie (his girlfriend) wants him to take her to a movie. To top it off, his mother calls, asking him to fly home because his father is going to have emergency surgery. Sociologists would say that Charles is very likely experiencing __________.
The perspective developed by Erving Goffman that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation is called __________.
Durkheim used the term __________ to refer to the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.
Which of these is an example of an achieved status?
A(n) __________ status is a social position a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effo
Conflict and functionalist theorists are in agreement that______________________.
social institutions are originally organized to meet basic needs within society
Erving Goffman coined the term ___________ for the strategies we use to rescue our performance when we experience a potentially or actually embarrassing situation
Media stories that focus on the lack of education or work history among the homeless and not on structural factors such as economic recession or the lack of affordable housing fail to account for the __________ of the situation.
One's occupation is an indicator of level of education and income and may also reflect family background. In the United States, occupation is an important determinant of social position. This makes occupation a likely __________ status.
Which of these is the best example of a secondary group?
a. a sociology class
b. a group of best friends
c. a parent and child
d. the people working together in the same department
a sociology class
The way we behave or conduct ourselves is referred to as __________.
After conducting his research, Solomon Asch concluded that __________.
he degree of social cohesion felt by participants is very important regarding how individuals respond to group pressure
In which of these types of groups is the participation of all members crucial to the survival of the group?
Women with blue eyes, people who wear contact lenses, people over 7 feet tall, and college men who belong to a fraternity are each an example of a(n) __________
In Stanley Milgram's experiments, none of the "teachers" challenged the process before they had applied __________ volts.
Which of these sociologists first suggested that small groups have interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups?
We voluntarily join __________ organizations when they can provide us with a material reward we seek.
The term for people with whom we have primary relationships and those in our primary groups is __________.
In discussing primary and secondary groups, the text points out that__________________.
people in a secondary group may eventually form a primary group
A(n) __________ is an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personal matters.
Which type of theorist is most concerned with the influence of group size on the interaction among members?
Sociologist Charles H. Cooley used the term __________ to describe a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
Political parties, ecological activist groups, religious organizations, parent-teacher associations, and college sororities and fraternities are examples of __________ organizations
Two best friends, married couples, and domestic partnerships are each an example of a(n) __________.
We voluntarily join __________ organizations when we want to pursue some common interest or gain personal satisfaction or prestige from being a member.
Annette, Joshua, Sandra, and Luis are college students who met for the first time in a sociology class. They study together and pool their notes. Otherwise, they see each other only occasionally when their paths cross between classes. Sociologists would term them a(n) __________.
A(n) __________ is a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic (such as education level, age, race, or gender).
The sociologist who first defined the differences between primary and secondary groups is __________.
Charles H. Cooley
A group composed of three members is termed a(n) __________.
A(n) __________ is a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
A(n) __________ is a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.
__________ suggest that groups involve unequal power relationships so that not all members of a group are not equally likely to have their needs met
In 2010, concern about cost overruns and staying on schedule kept executives of BP, Halliburton, and Transocean from sharing information and concerns with each other. The result was a shared assumption of safety that ultimately resulted in the explosion of a BP oil rig and an unprecedented environmental disaster. The failure to express concerns and confront potential risk is an example of __________.
A(n) __________ is an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy
A(n) __________ is a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic toward the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________.
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