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48 terms

botany

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absorption spectrum
A graph of the relative ability of a pigment to absorb different wavelengths of light
Action Spectrum
A graph that depicts the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process.
anabolic reactions
Metabolism in which large molecules are constructed form small ones.

Alternative catabolism
anoxygenic photosynthesis
Bacterial photosynthesis that does not use water for an electron donor and does not release oxygen as a water product.
ATP synthetase
Complex enzyme, in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that permits protons to re-enter the mitochondria and synthesizes ATP using the released energy.
Bacteriochlorophylls
light harvesting pigment involved in bacterial photosynthesis
C3 (calvin/Benson) cycle
One type of stroma reaction
C4 metabolism
A set of metabolic reactos in which carbon dioxide is fixed temporarily into organic acids that are transported to bundle sheaths, where tehy release the carbon dioxide and C3 photosynthesis occurs
chemiosmotic phosphorylation
The synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate using the inergy of an osmotic gradient and a gradient of electrical charge; occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondria
chlorophyll
pigment involved in capturing the light energy that drices photosynthesis; found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
A metaqbolism in which carbondioxide is absorbed at night and fixed temporarily into organic acids during daytime, the acids break down, carbon dioxide is released, and C3 photosynthesis occurs
cyclic electron transport
Teh flow of electrons form P700 back to plastoquinone in photosynthesis, such that there is proton pumping but no synthesis of NADPH

alternative: noncyclic electron transport
cytochromes
small electron carriers that contain iron
Electron transport chain
A series of electron carriers that transfer electrons form a donor which becomes oxidized to a receptor which becomes reduced
entropy
A mesure of disorder in a system
gluconeogenesis
Formation of glucose form 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde
green house effect
the natural heating process of a planet, such as Earth, by which gases in the atmosphere trap thermal energy.
heterotrophs
An organism that obtains its carbon form organic molecules not form carbon dioxide

Compare: autotroph
light compensation point
The level of illumination at which photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide just matches respiratory loss.
light dependent reaction
set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to prduce ATP and NADPH
noncyclic electron transport
The flow of electrons from water to NADPH during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis

Alternative: cyclic electron transport
oxidized state
A measure of the number of electrons added to or removed from a molecule during an oxidation reduction reaction
oxidative phosphorylation
The formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate, powered by energy released through respiration
oxidized compounds
often (but not always) contain a great deal oxygen
oxygenic photosynthesis
Oxygen is liberated as a waste product, oxidize water to reduce NADP and make NADPH, produces Oxygen and protons, light absorbed twice to span energy gap from H2O to NADP
ozone
a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water
3-phosphoglyceraldehyde
...
photoautotrophs
are photosynthsizers, use light for energy, and CO2 as carbon source
photons
the light quanta, behave like particles
photophosphorylation
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
photoresperation
The oxidation of phosphoglycolate produced when RuBP carboxylase adds oxidation, not carbon dioxid, to RuBP
photosystem 1
The pigments and electron carriers that transfer electrons from water to P700 to NADPH
photosystem 2
The pigments and electron carriers that transfer electrons from P700 on photosystem 1
pigment
any material that absorbs certain wavelengths specifically and therefore has distinctive color is a ___________.
plastocyanin
A copper-containing electron carrier.
plastoquinones
A class of lipid-soluble electron carriers.
quality of sunlight
refers to the colors or wavelengths it contains
quantum
A partical of electromagnetic energy

synonym: photon
reaction center
A special cholorphyll a molecule actually involved in the transfer of electrons in photosynthesis
reduced compounds
...
reducing power
...
ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate
acceptor molecule reacts with a molecule of carbon dioxide
RUBISCO
synonym for RuBP cargoxylase
RuBP carboxylase the enzyme in photosynthesis that carbonylates RuBP thus bringing carbon into the plant's metabollism
stroma
...
stroma reaction
in plant photosynthesis the set of reactions that occur in stroma and are not direclty powered by light

alternative: light dependent reactions
substrate-level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP from ADP by having a phosphate group transferred to it form a substrate molecule.
thylakoid lumen
...
Z scheme
...