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CHEMISTRY FINAL ALL
Terms in this set (230)
What happens to white light when it passes through a prism?
changes into a color
Why are the color labels "Reds rather than "Red"?
There are different shades of colors the light can change into
Do all colors of light travel at the same speed?
Do all colors of light have the same energy?
Highest energy color
Lowest energy color
Which color corresponds to the longest wavelengths?
Which color corresponds to the shortest wavelengths?
Relationship between wavelength and energy of light
The wavelength and the energy are opposite of each other
How are spectral lines for atoms like fingerprints for humans?
Identity of wavelengths and energy levels
Electrons and protons _______ each other.
As an electron gets closer to the nucleus the ______ to the nucleus gets ______.
For an electron to move from an energy level close to the nucleus to an energy level far from the nucleus it would need to _________ energy.
For an electron to move from an energy level far from the nucleus to an energy level close to the nucleus it would need to ________ energy.
Explain why a single atom of hydrogen cannot produce all four hydrogen spectral lines simultaneously.
Hydrogen only has 1 electron which can't travel up each spectral line.
How can we see all four colors from a hydrogen gas discharge tube simultaneously?
There are thousands of hydrogen atoms so together they can let off or group up to form all four colors.
Propose a hydrogen electron transition that involves light with a wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) range (10-400 nm).
Propose a hydrogen electron transition that involves light with a wavelength in the infrared (IR) range (1000-106 nm).
luster, malleable (bends), ductile (easier to pull out into wire), good conductor (heat & electricity)
no luster, brittle, poor conductors
copper (II) chloride
vanadium (III) selenide
manganese (IV) nitride
chromium (VI) cyanide
tin (II) sulfite
vanadium (V) fluoride
What are valence electrons?
electrons in the outer shell of an atom
How do you find the number of valence electrons for a representative element?
increase as you go across a period
What is one way to easily represent valence electrons?
What is the octet rule?
atoms of low atomic # tend to combine so that they have 8 valence electrons
How does the octet rule relate to noble gases?
does not relate - noble gases already have 8 valence electrons
How is a cation formed? Why does this happen?
metal loses electrons making positive ions/electronegativity
What type of elements tend to form cations?
What is the charge on a cation?
How are anions formed? Why does this happen?
electrons are gained making negative/ionization energy
What type of elements tend to form anions?
What is the charge on an anion?
electron changes to look like a noble gas but the nucleus is the same
How and why do nonmetals form noble gas configurations?
They are electronegative and attracting electrons
define Ionization Energy
energy needed to remove an electron
the ability to pull an electron towards an atom
Horizontal row on the periodic table
Vertical column on the periodic table
Elements that are liquid at room temperature
Bromine and Mercury
Elements that are gases at room temperature
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Chlorine, Fluorine, Hydrogen, Helium, Neon, Xenon, Argon, Krypton, Radon
The principle that chemical properties of the elements are period functions of their atomic number.
measures atmospheric pressure
distilled water container
contains distilled water
used in case unwanted chemicals are spilled
to wash harmful chemicals out of eyes
to rinse harmful chemicals out of your eyes
to smother fires
to put out fires
to keep unwanted chemicals out of the air and distributes them out of the building
to heat materials up
to estimate the temperature in the room
3 sig figs
4 sig figs
7 sig figs
2 sig figs
3 sig figs
4 sig figs
1.400 * 10⁷
11 sig figs
5 sig figs
1 sig fig
2 sig figs
1.0000 * 10³
5 sig figs
2 sig figs
5 sig figs
3 sig figs
4 sig figs
1.034 (to 2 sig figs)
40.06 (to 3 sig figs)
0.0000624 (to 2 sig figs)
1.549 (to 2 sig figs)
739.71 (to 2 sig figs)
82.0000 (to 1 sig fig)
What was the basic idea behind the Bohr model of the atom?
Electrons were in orbitals around the nucleus
orbitals vs. orbits
Orbits - nucleus is visible
Orbitals - nucleus is not visible, electrons scattered around
discovered elements weights
nucleus/plum pudding theory
discovered what atoms look like
orbitals, atoms have a core
confirmed existence of neutrons
how close a measurement is to the actual or true value of whatever is measured
how close a measurement is to a series of measurements irrespective of the actual value
actual value - measured value x100
the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations
some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change
ex. physical change
melting = reversable
boil, freeze melt, condense, break, split, grind, cut, crush
a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter
ex. chemical change
a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances composition
ex. of physical property
hardness, color, conductivity, and malleability
the ability of a substance to unergo a specific chemical change
ex. of chemical property
the ability to rust, burning
What is matter?
Anything that has mass and occupies space
a mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout
ex. of heterogeneous
chicken noodle soup, pizza
define homogeneous (solution)
a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout
ex. of homogeneous
air, stainless steel
What is the difference between a gas and a vapor?
Gas: form of matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container
Vapor: the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature
What is the goal of distillation?
a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid.
What is the goal of filtration?
the process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture.
4 clues that a chemical change has taken place
1. a transfer of energy
2. a change in color
3. the production of a gas
4. formulation of a precipitate
"Law of Conservation of Mass"
States that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved.
information appearing mostly in conversational or narrative form
information given in numerical form
SI unit for length
SI unit for mass
m/v = d
positive, in nucleus
no charge, in nucleus
negative, electron clouds
Democritus's Atomic Philosophy
reasoned that atoms were indivisible and indestructible
1. All atoms are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms
2. atoms of the same element are identical
3. atoms of different elements can physically mix or chemically combine into whole-number ratios
4. chemical reactions occur when atoms separate, join, or rearrange
2- isotopes make atoms different
4- nuclear reaction occurs
What is an isotope?
Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
"Quantum Mechanical Model"
determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations around the nucleus of an atom
define energy level
fixed energies an electron can have
electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible
Pauli exclusion principle
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons
Electron configuration for phosphorus
Core Electrons: 10
Paired electrons: 12
Unpaired electrons: 3
Explain how the change in electron energy relates to light being emitted in electronic transition
When atoms absorb energy their electrons move to higher energy levels. These electrons lose energy by emitting light when they return to lower energy levels.
Mendelev's contribution to the periodic table
arranged the elements in his periodic table in order of increasing atomic mass
Mosely's contribution to the periodic table
determined an atomic mass for each known element
How is an ionic bond formed?
The electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together.
List at least three properties of ionic compounds
composed of ions, cations, and anions
How do the electrons in a metallic bond behave?
consists of the attraction of free-floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions
why are metal alloys important?
properties are often superior to those of their component elements
define polyatomic ion
composed of more than one atom, behaves as a unit and carries a charge
copper (II) phosphate
lead (IV) iodide
iron (III) nitrate
Iron (II) Sulfide (binary)
Sodium Sulfate (ternary)
Hydrogen Phosphite (ternary)
Ammonium Nitrate (ternary)
Lithium Bromide (binary)
Aluminum Sulfite (ternary)
Lead (IV) Bromide
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
The Development of the Atomic Theory
Honors Chemistry LO1 and LO2 quiz
Branches of Biology
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