30 terms

China political vocabulary

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Central Committee
Leadership body of the CCP made up of 340 members who meet once a year for a week. Members of the Politburo are elected from within this body.
Central Military Commission
represents the military in China's government; head plays an important role in policymaking
Chiang Kai-shek
Founder and leader of the Chinese nationalist party (KMT).
collectivism
The good of the community is valued above that of the individual
Confucianism
A philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture
Cultural Revolution
Reforms ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
danwei
The basic means of social organization and a major means of political control in China's communist party-state.
Deng Xiaoping Theory
a practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization
egalitarianism
a belief in the equality of all people
fang-shou
The cycle of tightening up and then loosening restrictions that characterizes Chinese politics.
factionalism
The state of, or tendency toward, dividing into different groups with conflicting interests.
Four Modernizations
Deng Xiaoping's plan to increase industrialization, modernize agriculture, improve military, develop technology and science
gang of four
term used to denote the four leading radical figures - Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen, who were arrested and blamed for the faults of the Cultural Revolution.
Great Leap Forward
Mao Zedong's failed attempt to rapidly increase China's industrial and agricultural production between 1957-1962.
household responsibility system
Deng Xiaoping's rural reform program of the 1980's that lowered production quotas and allowed the sale of surplus agricultural produce on the free market.
Hu Jintao
China's current Communist party leader and President of the People's Republic of China.
iron rice bowl
Mao's promise that the CCP would ensure cradle-to-grave healthcare, work, and retirement security.
Jiang Zemin
The PRC's president and general secretary of the CCP until 2003.
Deng Xiaoping
Communist Leader who introduced economic reforms in China that led to economic growth and progress.
mandate of heaven
The political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party at its inception; gained massive support from peasants and ruled China from 1949 until his death in 1976
Maoism
The Chinese version of Marxism-Leninism developed by Mao Zedong which emphasizes the strengths of the peasant class.
mass line
Chinese Communist principle that stressed "learning from the masses."
National Party Congress
Political body of over 2,000 delegates that meets every 5 years to rubber stamp decisions by party leaders. Its main power is to elect members to the Central Committee.
People's National Congress
The political body of almost 3,000 members that elects the President and Vice-President of the PRC.
plenums
The meetings of the Central Committee of the CCP.
Special Economic Zones
Designated regions within China where foreign investment is encouraged, businesses can make own production decisions and foreign companies are allowed to operate.
township and village enterprises
Rural factories and businesses in China that are run by local government and private businesses and have become the increasingly important in the Chinese economy
guanxi
The chinese practice of building networks for social exchange
Wen Jiabao
China's current premier and head of government