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How often elections are held for congress

every 2 years

How many House Reps


How many senators


A term for House Rep

2 year

A term for Senator

6 years

How old to be a House Rep


How old to be a Senator


House rep: US citizen for how many years?

7 years

Senator: US citizen for how many years?

9 years


# of people necessary to do business; majority

Habeas Corpus

to have the body back

Ex post Facto

makes a particular act illegal and punishes people who committed that crime before the law was passed

Bill of Attainder

Singles an individual out & denies him the right to trial

P & VP Term

2 years

Popular Votes month


Elector Votes Month


Age of P & VP

at least 35

P & VP number of years in US

14 years

Number of Electors per state

# of House + 2

2 Presidents who won electoral votes but lost popular votes

John Quincy Adams & George Bush

How many cabinet members


How long does a cabinet member serve

no definite term

Who appoints the cabinet members

President with the consent of the senate

Elastic Clause (Congress)

Make all laws necessary & proper, carry out purpose in the Preamble

Executive's Branch's Elastic clause

"He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed."

Appellate Jurisdiction

power to retry cases already tried in lower courts

Original Jurisdiction

the authority to hear cases for the first time; determine the facts


Making war against US; Giving Aid/comfort to the enemies of US

corruption of Blood

punishing a family of a person convicted of treason


Loss of property as payment

how many justices in supreme court?


how long does all justices serve?

life time

what jurisdiction does supreme court have?

original & appellate jurisdiction

what jurisdiction does Court of Appeals have?

Appellate Jurisdiction

what jurisdiction does District Courts have?

Original Jurisdiction


The legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one state is returned to that state

Supremacy Clause

Constitution & Laws of US + treaties = Supreme Law of the Land

prim facie case

top/surface case presented by a prosecutor that a crime is committed

Due process of law

fair legal practices followed by courts based upon fair laws

Eminent Domain

the right of the state to take private property for public use

voir dire

screening process in which opposing lawyers question prospective jurors to ensure as favorable or as fair a jury as possible


a court order requiring appearance or testimony

Political Efficacy

Belief that citizens can affect what government does




a small group (landowners, military officers, wealthy merchants)


more people participate and have influence

constitutional Government

liberal government where there is formal and effective limits on government


no formal limits but restrained by power of other social institutions


dominate and control every aspect without formal limits of any other social institutions as well

Representative Democracy/ Republic

Gives citizen a regular opportunity to elect the top government officials

Direct Democracy

Permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies


All interest groups are free to compete for interest in government (funding, lobbying)

Direct Action Politics

Civil disobedience/revolutionary actions that take place outside formal channels

Laissez-faire Capitalism

Economic Freedom with production and earning privately owned without government interference


Personal freedom where powers are limited for government by law


all individuals have the right to participate in political right and society on equivalent terms

Affirmative Action

encourage employers of hiring minorities and women


Prior Restraint


a writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts

Writ of Certiorari

an order, sent from a higher court to a lower one which orders the lower court to turn over transcripts and documents related to a specific case for review.

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