AP Human Geography Unit 6 Agriculture
Terms in this set (35)
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
The deliberate modification and cultivation of crops/ rearing of animals for sustenance or economic profits
Agriculture for sales/ economic profits, not for personal consumption
The third agricultural revolution (1945-1990) in which new, better fertilizers, irrigation, and more mechanization were introduced as well as new plant varieties.../ Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.
a farm in usually more LDCs/ a type of subsistence farming in which the product/ crop is sold to MDCs and for profit
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each fields are cleared and used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris, 'potash,' which is then used as a natural fertilizer
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal overgrazing, and tree cutting.
A commercial type of agriculture that produces fattened cattle and hogs for meat and sales
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates (hot summers) of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, and other horticulture
A form of subsistence agriculture based on roaming around in a territory & herding domesticated animals.
Von Thunen Model
A model developed by J.H. Von Thunen displaying different rings of agriculture surrounding a city based on transportation costs and land costs/ also perishability
Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia. Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population.
Neolithic, Second, Green,...A period in time in which peoples across the globe began to switch from Hunter-Gatherer societies to Farming and Domestication (raising animals). The Agricultural Revolution seems to have started 9,000 years ago, and led to a sharp increase in Human populations (better, more stable and available food). This led to the development of villages, then town and cities, and the beginning of civilizations.
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
The guy who thought up agricultural origins, and defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis.
Areas of the world with similar climate characteristics; 11 on the map for agriculture by derwent wittlesey and 1 that was its own deal/ non agricultural
Commercial Grain Farming
commercial farming/ agriculture involving the large-scale, highly mechanized cultivation of grain
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
commercial farming/ an agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Harvesting twice a year from the same field to increase profits and land use
Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms.
Hunting and Gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Land Survey Systems
long lot, metes and bounds, township and range, rectangular
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually. Areas: East Coast, USA... Maine through like Florida
Mixed Crop and Livestock Production
both animal and crops are farmed in the same area, it's helpful because farmers could distribute the workload more evenly through the year, and most crops are fed to the animals; most profits from animal product
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
The wearing away of surface soil by water and wind
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.(shifting agriculture, subsistence agriculture)
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture. (Pastoral Nomadism)
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.