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Unit 3 Vocab
Terms in this set (67)
12 million immigrants entered the US through this designated Federal Immigration Station
Immigration point of entry for Asia
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
law that suspended Chinese immigration into America. The ban was supposed to last 10 years, but it was expanded several times and was essentially in effect until WWII.
Gentleman's Agreement with Japan
Theodore Roosevelt convinced San Francisco School Board to integrate their Asian students and in return Japan prohibit any more emigration to the US.
Ended by Immigration Act of 1924.
A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
a strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes
a leader in a political party who controls votes and dictates appointments
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
institutions that provided educational and social services to poor people
republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters.
A faction of the Republican party in the ends of the 1800s Supported the political machine and patronage. Conservatives who hated civil service reform.
Pendleton Act of 1883
Federal legislation which created a system in which federal employees were chosen on the basis of competitive examinations, therefore making merit, or ability, the reason for hiring people to fill federal positions
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
McKinley Tariff of 1890
raised tariffs to the highest level they had ever been. Big business favored these tariffs because they protected U.S. businesses from foreign competition.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting.
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
A general and progressive increase in prices
a decrease in the general level of prices
Organizations composed of individuals or small businesses that have banded together to reap the benefits of belonging to a larger organization
network of farmers' organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s
Political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
the idea that the United States and Latin American nations should work together
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris 1898
ended Spanish-American War, gave US Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Foraker Act of 1900
Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov't and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. Worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Sphere of Influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa.
Big Stick Policy
Theodore Roosevelt's method for achieving American goals in the Caribbean; it featured the threat and use of military force to promote America's commercial supremacy, to limit European intervention in the region, and to protect the Panama Canal.
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($)
--for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures.
The movement in the late 1800s fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
A primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
NAWSA (National American Woman Suffrage Association)
Women's rights association that fought for voting rights.
National Woman's Party
Was formed in 1916. A more militant approach to gaining votes by some women. Took to streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes. Their leader was Alice Paul.
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
a factory fire that killed 146 workers trapped in the building; led to new safety standard laws
(Women's Christian Temperance Union) group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Interstate Commerce Commission
1887 an agency that sets the laws for all the companies that do business across state lines
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
An agency created during Taft's administration to protect the rights of children
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
graduated income tax
a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
a federal agency empowered to prevent persons or corporations from using unfair methods of competition in commerce
Law enacted to protect against child labor by prohibiting the interstate shipping of goods in which someone under 14 worked to make