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Biology Academic 9th grade final study guide
Terms in this set (142)
question being answered in the experiment
educated guess before testing
observations made during the experiment
answer to the problem based on testing results
control (set-up) group
Group of subjects who do not get the manipulative variable
a group of subjects who are exposed to the manipulative variable under a study
factor of an experiment that scientist purposely change
responding variable variable the changes in response to the manipulative variable
variable the changes in response to the manipulative variable
things kept the same throughout a experiment
Biology is the study of_________
Name the characteristics of living things.
a. Made up of cells
c. grow and develope
d. Obtain and use of energy (Metabolize
e. Respond and adjust to change (Maintain homeostasis
f. Use Heredity
Process by which internal conditions are kept constant
What is the safety rule for hair?
Long hair must be tied back.
What is the safety rule for eyes?
Anytime chemicals, heat, or glassware are used, students will wear laboratory goggles. If you get an chemical in your eyes, use the eyewash for at least 20 minutes to flush the with water.
What is the safety rule for horseplay?
Never horseplay in the lab, but work calmly and carefully
What is the safety rule for eating and drinking?
Do not eat food, drink beverages or chew gum in a laboratory. Do not use laboratory glassware as containers for food or beverages
What is the safety rule for fire?
First thing tell teacher, know where fire blanket fire extinguisher are use them if teacher can't get there.
How should you carry a microscope?
With one hand and the base & hand on the over
Calculate the total magnification when using the low power objective lens if your eyepiece is 10X and your objectives are 10, 20, 40 X
100X, 200X, 400X
Give a example of chemical reaction
2H2 + O2 ----→ 2H2O
What is released during a chemical reaction?
During an exothermic reaction, heat light and sound can all be released. Next in an endothermic reaction, heat is not released but is absorbed.
What is a element?
is a pure substance made of one type of atom
What is a molecule?
when atoms join together with covalent bonds
how many protons, neutrons and electrons does the atom carbon have?
Describe the difference between ionic and covalent bonding:
ionic electrons are transferred and covalent electrons are shared
What is an organic molecule?
Any molecule that supports life
List the organic molecules necessary for life and explain their role in the body.
d. nucleic acids
What is the solute?
Is a substance that is dissolved
What is the solvent?
This substance in which the solute dissolves
What does the pH scale indicate?
Indicating the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
What is activation energy?
Energy needed to get a reaction started
What is an enzyme?
An enzyme is a protein that lowers the amount of activation energy required for a chemical reaction to occur
what is the cell organization?
Cells -Tissues -Organs—Systems-Organisms
What is metabolism?
Mitochondria breaking down food for the cell's energy
What did hooke do?
Looked at a cork, a plant material, and saw empty chambers which he called "cells"
What did van leeuhoek do?
observed pond water and saw many living cells
What did schleiden do?
concluded that all plants are made of cells
What did virchow do?
concluded that all cells come from other living things
What is a prokaryotic cell?
Cells that don't have a nucleus. They are small in size, and contain genetic material, but not in a nucleus
What is a eukaryotic cell?
Cells that have a nucleus. They are larger and more complex than prokaryotes, and genetic material is contained inside a nucleus
What is the main function of cell membrane?
thin, flexible barrier around the cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
What is the main function of vacuole?
What is the main function of nucleus?
holds the genetic material
What is the main function of ER?
has ribosomes on its surface
What is the function of Ribosome?
What is the function of mitochondria?
changes food molecules into energy
What is the function of chloroplasts?
changes energy from the sun into energy for use by his cell. Found only in plants, algae and cyanobacteria
What is the main function of golgi?
modifies, sorts & packages molecules from the ER
Parts 3 of the cell theory
1. All cells are composed of living things
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function
3. New cells are produced from existing cells
List 3 ways that PLANT CELLS differ from ANIMAL CELLS.
1. Plant cells have a cell wall animal cells don't
2. Plant cells have chloroplasts animal cells don't
3. Plant cells have a central vacuole animal cells don't
Smaller cells are more efficient than larger cells because?
The ratio of surface area to volume is smaller in smaller cells also the DNA is more efficient in a small cell than in a large cell
what is the function of the polar region on the cell membrane?
The head and it is hydrophilic face outward where they interact with the water inside and outside of the cell.
what is the function of a channel protein?
Regulates what goes in and out of the cell
What is the function of a marker protein?
Carbohydrate chains that are used as chemical identifiers which allow other things to identify each other
What is the function of a phospholipid?
They form the lipid bilayer in cell membranes of organisms.
What is the function of a receptor protein?
An intracellular protein (or protein fraction) that has a high specific affinity for binding a known stimulus to cellular activity, such as a steroid hormone or adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate.
What is the function of a non polar region?
which are referred to as hydrophobic, face the interior of the bilayer, where they are shielded from water
What is diffusion?
molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
What is facilitated diffusion?
large molecules such as glucose, move through protein channels
What is osmosis?
the diffusion of WATER from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration across a SELECTIVLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
What is a hypotonic solution?
solute concentration is higher inside the cell; cell shrinks causing osmotic pressure against cell membrane or wall. If a cell does not have a cell wall, may burst if the osmotic pressure is too high.
What is a hypertonic solution?
solute concentration is higher outside the cell; cell shrinks
Energy (ATP) is required
What is exocytosis?
cell releases material from the vacuole to the outside of the cell
What is endocytosis?
cell takes material into cell by folding in its membrane
Movement of water from an area of high concentration to a area of low concentration is known as _______________.
if a human body cell (2n) has 46 chromosomes how many Gametes (N) does it have?
23 gametes (n)
if a Garden pea body cell (2n) has 14 chromosomes how many Gametes (N) does it have?
7 gametes (n)
If a fruit flies has a total of 4 gamete cells (n) how many body cells (2n) does it have?
8 body cells (2n)
Somatic cells divide by Mitosis or meiosis? and are haploid or diploid?
Gamete cells are formed by mitosis or meiosis? and are dipliod or haploid?
what are the phases of mitosis in order?
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and cytokinesis
In which two stages of the cell cycle does the cell grow?
G1 and G2
cancer is a disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth.
What is cancer's connection to the cell cycle?
The cell cycle is the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Phases of meiosis 1
Prophase 1, Metaphase 1,Anaphase 1, Telophase 1 and Cytokinesis.
Phases of meiosis 2
Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2 and Cytokinesis
what happens in interphase in mitosis?
the cell grows and replicates it's DNA and centrioles
What happens in prophase in mitosis?
the chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The centrioles separate, and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear envelope breaks down
What happens in metaphase of mitosis?
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at the centromere.
What happens in anaphase of mitosis?
The sister commented separate into individual chromosomes in are moved apart
What happens in telophase of mitosis?
The chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes. Two new new nuclear envelopes will form.
What happens in cytokinesis of mitosis?
The cytoplasm pinches in half. Each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes.
What happens in interphase 1 of meiosis 1?
Cells undergo a round of DNA replication, forming duplicate chromosomes
What happens in prophase 1 of meiosis 1?
Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad
What happens in metaphase 1 of meiosis 1?
Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes.
What happens in anaphase 1 of meiosis 1?
The fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell
what happens in telophase 1 and cytokinesis of meiosis 1?
Nuclear membranes form. the cell separates in two cells.
What happens in prophase 2 of meiosis 2?
Meiosis 1 results in two haploid(n) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.
What happens in metaphase 2 of meiosis 2?
The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis
What happens in anaphase 2 of meiosis 2?
The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell
What happens in telophase 2 and cytokinesis of meiosis 2?
Meiosis 2 results in four haploid (n)daughter cells.
What is a gamete?
a sex cell also the end result of meiosis
What is a karyotype?
The picture of chromosomes that biologist cut out and arrange them in pairs
what are autosomes?
human chromosome pairs #1-22
What are sex chromosomes?
human chromosome pair #23
How can you determine a male from a female on a karyotype?
Male - XY
Female - XX
What does dominant mean?
stronger trait- upper case letters A, B
What does recessive mean?
weaker trait - lowercase letters a, b
What does homozygous mean?
having identical alleles for a trait AA and aa
what does hybrid/heterozygous mean?
Having 2 different alleles Aa
What does phenotype mean?
What does genotype mean?
What is a trait?
What is an allele?
Different forms of a gene
What does multiple alleles mean?
combination of two or more alleles producing different phenotypes
What does codominant mean?
both alleles contribute to the phenotype
What is incomplete dominance?
2 traits blend to form a new one
What is a monohybrid cross?
1 trait 4 square punnett square
What is a dihybrid cross?
2 trait 16 square punnett square
What is probability?
the likelihood a particular event will occur
What is the P generation?
What is the F1 generation?
P generation's offspring and first generation of offspring
What is the F2 generation?
second generation of offspring off spring of the F1
What is a sex linked trait?
affect mostly males because they have only one extra chromosome
List 3 sex (X)-linked traits
1. Colorblindness- can't determine difference between red & green
2. Hemophilia- can't make clotting proteins; can easily bleed to death
3. Muscular dystrophy- 1/3000 males affecting in the U.S.; causes weakening of muscles
What is a pedigree?
a chart that shows the relationships with in a family & how traits are inherited
Given the fact that curly (C) hair is dominant, what would be the expected genotypes of the offspring (in percent) if a heterozygous curly haired man married a straight haired woman?
75% Cc and 25% cc
Two tall pea plants were crossed, 75% of the offspring were tall and 25% were short. What were the genotypes of the parent plants?
Tt X tt
In Dobermans, a rough coat (R) is dominant over a smooth coat (r). If a homozygous rough coated Doberman mates with a homozygous smooth coated Doberman , what is the best phenotypic prediction for their offspring?
Phenotypic ratio is 4:0 and Phenotypic percent is 100% Rr
What is non-disjunction?
is the failure of homologous chromosomes, or sister chromatids, to separate during meiosis
What are the differences between Dna and Rna?
DNA- Double stranded, Contains Deoxyribose sugar, Contains thymine
Rna- Single stranded,Contains Ribose sugar,Contains Uracil instead of Thymine
DNA is made of nucleotides. What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
Why does DNA replicate?
So that way a cell is able to divide to create new cells
In Dna adenine pairs with____________ and guanine pairs with ________________
Thymine and cytosine
In Rna adenine pairs with ____________ and cytosine pairs with ______________
Uracil and guanine
RNA makes a complementary copy of a section of DNA and then it takes it to the ribosome
Making of proteins
What is the role of mRNA?
Makes a copy of the DNA or section of DNA and brings it to the ribosome
What is the role of tRNA?
Brings amino acids to the chromosme to form proteins
tRNA brings what type of molecule to the ribosome to build the protein?
In which type of RNA molecule is a codon found?
What is a codon?
Three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
In which type of RNA molecule is a anti-codon found?
What is a anti codon?
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Translate the following mRNA codons to tRNa anticodons then give the amino acid sequence.
mRNA codons: UUG CCA ACC GGG
AAC GGU UGG CCC
amino acid sequence: leu- pro- tre- gly
Translate the following tRNA anticodons to mRNA then give the amino acid sequence.
UAC GCU UAA GGC AUU
AUG CGA AUU CCG UAA
amino acid sequence: Met- Arg- Iso- Pro- Stop
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