Civil War Notes
Terms in this set (26)
Established by Congress to provide food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection, and education for former slaves and poor whites in the South in 1865.
The period during which the United States began to rebuild after the Civil War, lasted from 1865 to 1877.
Lincoln was assassinated, so Andrew Johnson had his own plan, tried to break the planters' power by excluding high-ranking Confederates and wealthy Southern landowners from taking the oath needed for voting privileges
Prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any U.S. citizen, now defined as "all persons born or naturalized in the United States."
No one can be kept from voting because of "race, color, or condition of servitude"
White Southerners who joined the Republican Party.
Northerners who moved to the South after the war.
The first African American senator from Mississippi.
Landowners divided their land and assigned each head of household a few acres, along with seeds and tools.
Ku Klux Klan
The most notorious and widespread of the Southern vigilante groups. Goals were to destroy the Republican Party, to throw out the the Reconstruction governments, to aid the planter class, and to prevent African Americans from exercising their political rights.
Civil War Outcome on the South
Destroyed the South economically, Republican government programs tried to repair the physical damage and provide social services
Civil War for North
Had Inexperienced Generals, capital was Washington, D.C., larger army and navy. Goals were to preserve the country and free the slaves, led by Abraham Lincoln
Civil War for South
Had more experienced Generals, capital was Richmond, VA (briefly Montgomery, Al), smaller army, no navy at war start. Goals were to maintain southern way of life, including slavery
Start of Civil War
Fort Sumter was attacked by Confederates.
Strategies of the North to win the Civil War
Navy Blockades block Southern ports, move down the Mississippi River to split Confederacy into two parts, and capture the confederacy capital of Richmond, VA
Strategies of the South to win the Civil War
Defend the land and attack when an opportunity arises
Freed all the slaves in the South to reunite the Union and end slavery. Lincoln suffered from a crisis of faith making the proclamation. He didn't even know if he would issue it, it was a contradictory document, and it was a valuable tactic to end the Civil War
Battle of Fort Sumter
Started the war, 700,000 men were willing to fight for the North. (April 12, 1861, Charleston, SC) Winner was Confederacy
Battle of Bull Run / Manassas
First major battle, proved to the North that it would be a long war, South gained more morale. (July 21, 1861, Manassas, VA) Winner is Confederacy
Battle of Hamton Roads / Battle of the Ironclads
Wooden ships are outdated, iron clads are the way to go. (March 9, 1862, Hampton Roads, VA). No winner
Battle of Shiloh
Marked beginning of "total war", meaning anything is used to ensure a victory. Mississippi River no longer under southern control (April 6, 1862, Southwestern Tennessee). Winner was Union
Battle of Antietam / Sharpsburg
Lincoln removed General McClellan from command, due to failure to attack Lee after retreating, Lincoln issued the Emancipation proclamation, South needed foreign help, and deadliest day of the Civil War (September 17, 1862, Sharpsburg MD) Winner is Union
Battle of Gettysburg
Largest battle of the war, more than 1/3 of Lee's army has been killed or wounded, considered the turning point of the war (July 1-3, 1863) Winner was Union
Battle of Vicksburg
Secured Union's victory of the Mississippi River, matter of time before war ends, war type was siege (July 4, 1863, Vicksburg MS) Winner was Union
Sherman's March to the Sea
South is close to death, all morale has been significantly diminished (November 15, 1864 - December 21, 1864, Countryside (Georgia)) Union pushed to end the war
South surrendered. Confederates keep house, horses, and not charged for treason. (April 9, 1865, near Richmond, VA). Union won the war