Henretta Chapter 7
Terms in this set (54)
Who does Washington appoint to his cabinet?
Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War: Knox
1789; Created the Supreme Court with 6 justices and lower courts
Bill of Rights
1793; Safeguard against government power; 10 Amendments that safeguarded fundamental personal rights, including freedom of speech and religion, and mandated legal procedures, such as trial by jury.
Report on the Public Credit
Alexander Hamilton's 1790 report recommending that the federal government should buy back all loans plus interest (funding at par); controversial because some speculators bought up bonds at cheap prices
Bank of the US
1790; Would provide loans to businesses and help the economy
Who would favor Public Credit?
States that were in lots of debt during the Revolutionary War would favor this plan. States with little to no debt would NOT favor
Why did Alexander Hamilton favor national debt?
He thought it was a blessing because the more people that the US owed money to, the more people would want to see the US succeed
What was the only reason that Public Credit was passed?
D.C. being located in the south
Strict v. Loose Interpretation of the Constitution
Hamilton favored a Loose interpretation (seeing what the constitution does not prohibit); Jefferson advocated a strict interpretation (only if the constitution says you can do something, do it.)
Tax on domestic goods
Tax on imported good; REVENUE FOR THE GOVERNMENT
First Party System
Hamiltonians = Federalists and Jeffersonians = Republicans (Jefferson believed farmers were the backbone of the economy)
Proclamation of Neutrality
1793; Allowed US citizens to trade with all belligerents (people in war); Washington issued to remain neutral in the conflict between Britain and France.
Thomas Jefferson's idea of an agricultural society based on free labor. Jefferson wanted productive farm families to settle in the west. He felt that sending meat and grain to Europe in exchange for manufactured goods would prove very rewarding.
A 1789 revolution in France that was an extension of the American Revolution because it was based in the same ideas American fought for: consent of the governed and anti-monarchy.
1796; Western PA farmers rebelled against excise tax; The rebellion was crushed by the national government
Impact of the Whiskey Rebellion
This showed that the constitution provided for a strong government, unlike the Articles of Confederation.
1795; Britain seized American ships; John Jay hoped to protect ships; It accepted Britain's right to stop neutral ships
The South wasn't happy that only the North was compensated from Britain for impressment
Angered France, who thought the US was too friendly with Britain
What was the impact of the Haitian Rebellion?
Toussaint L'Ouverture helped Haiti gain independence; US slave holders feared the impact of the revolution on their slaves since many of the liberated blacks were traveling to the US
Republicans in the 1790s
Tended to be farmers (west and south), immigrants (French), and subsistence farmers in the north; Pro-French; Power to the states
1797-98; French diplomats demanded a bribe from 3 US ambassadors, but they didn't pay the bribe; War hysteria ensued.
Undeclared war between US and France after the DYZ Affair
US captured many French ships
Ends with Napoleon's reign
1798; Increased residency requirements for American citizenship from 5-14 years; Aimed at hurting the immigrants who tended to vote for Jefferson (Jeffersonians)
1798; Authorized deportation of foreigners; Allowed the president to deport foreigners.
1798; Made it illegal to criticize or insult the government (President or members of congress)
What was the purpose of the Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts?
It was meant to silence opposition to Federalists or President Adams
VA and KY Resolutions
1798; Urged states to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts; Response from Jefferson and Madisen who thought the Alien and Sedition Act were unconstitutional
*What did Jefferson and Madisen believe in after the Alien and Sedition Acts
COMPACT THEORY: He states could decide what laws should be nullified since they created the constitution
The Revolution of 1800
Jefferson becomes president after John Adams; There was a peaceful transition of power between political parties
Treaty Of Greenville
1795; treaty between the United States and various Indian tribes in Ohio. American negotiators acknowledged Indian ownership of the land, and, in return for various payments, the Western Confederacy ceded most of Ohio to the United States.
What new good was becoming popular?
Cotton (King Cotton); Cotton was popular after Eli Whitney built cotton gin that effectively extracted seeds from its strands
MARBURY V. MADISON
1803; SC RULES A LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL ; SC case that found parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789 were in conflict with the Constitution; For the first time, the SC assumed legal authority to overrule acts of other branches of the government.
Significance of Marbury v. Madison
It established the principle of judicial review, making the Supreme Court the sole interpreter of the constitution that can declare laws unconstitutional
Why is Marbury suing Madison?
Marbury one of Adam's midnight judges who never received his commission or papers
As Secretary of State, Madison shouldve given Marbury his commission but he refused because he didn't want to see a Federalist judge in power
US and Spain Treaty where the US could navigate the Mississippi and store goods in New Orleans
1803; Napoleon gained by the LA territory; US feared they would be cut out of the Mississippi River (Spain wasn't there anymore) so Jefferson wanted to buy New Orleans
Impact of the LA Purchase
Doubled the size of the US; JEFFERSON SWITCHES FROM STRICT TO LOOSE INTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION since heeded a way to justify the Louisiana Purchase (HES A FLIP FLOPPER)
He was Jefferson's VP and he killed Alexander Hamilton; Tried to create a new country.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were sent to explore the newly acquired territory (LA Purchase); They has many interactions with natives along the way :)
What conflict arose in the Atlantic and the West between Britain once again?
Impressment: British SEIZED SHIPS and forced sailors into the BRITISH NAVY
The Embargo of 1807
Jefferson's response to the kid napping of sailors; Also a response to the Chesapeake incident where a British ship fired on an American ship, killing 3 Americans; US CUT OFF ALL TRADE WITH ALL COUNTRIES 😱 a huge disaster
What did the British relations with Natives consist of?
Tecumseh and Natives were provided guns by the British, although they were defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe by William Harrison
Name some Warhawks during this time.
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
What group of people were against war and why?
Federalist because War would affect trade relations
War of 1812
Not successful; Washington DC and Buffalo were burned; Started when British warships were disrupting American commerce.
Meeting of Federalists to address grievances; They proposed amendments
Treaty of Ghent
No land was gained or lost; ENDED the WAR OF 1812
Republicans pursued policies similar to the Federalists
What was John Marshall's Federalist impact on the government?
He strengthened the power of the federal government and the Supreme Court
McCulloch v. Maryland
BUS was declared constitutional; states can't tax a federal government agency; SHOWS THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS MORE POWERFUL THAN THE STATES
Gibbons v. Ogden
Only congress, NOT states, can control INTERstate (trade between two of more states) commerce; ANOTHER WIN FOR THE FEDERALIST GOVERNMENT
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Contracts can't be impaired by the government; GIVES POWER TO INDIVIDUALS IN PROPERTY RIGHTS
1819; John Quincy Adams persuaded Spain to cede the Florida territory to the United States. In return, the American government accepted Spain's claim to Texas and agreed to compromise on the western boundary for the state of Louisiana.
Europe must stay out of the Western Hemisphere; in return, US will not get involved in European affairs.