EDPS Exam 2
Terms in this set (64)
Component of memory; holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief time (2-3 seconds or less)
focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
Focusing attention on task relevant information and ignoring irrelevant information (gets better with age)
new information is held while being mentally processed
-stores for (10-20 seconds)
memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long period of time.
encoding (rehearsal organization, elaboration)
allows the perceived item of use or interest to be converted into a construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from short-term or long-term memory.
Students' self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions, which are systematically oriented toward attainment of their goals
Knowledge that people have about their own cognitive capabilities & thinking process
(May be hard for younger children)
Process of becoming able to respond quickly or efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing certain tasks
(Once our thoughts and actions become automatized they take up much less "space" in working memory, enabling children to perform more challenging tasks or problems)
Tightly integrated set of ideas about a specific object or situation
Schema that involves a predictable sequence of events related to a common activity
levels of processing
differences in the level or amount of information processed determines how long and how well it will be remembered
Groups items by association
(shared meanings, visual similarity, narrative, etc.)
Used when verbatim recall of information is required.
(a phone number you are waiting to dial)
learned more easily and remembered more completely than unorganized information
Adding information to make it meaningful and easier to store
(using an image, relating information to existing knowledge)
Children begin to regulate and control their own learning activities
Process through which an adult and child share responsibility for directing various aspects of a child's learning.
Process of checking oneself to make sure one understands what one is studying
How does a 6th grader differ from a kindergarteners with their information processing? (define concepts and apply w/ examples)
phonology (speaking skills)
How words sound and are produced
repeating strings of vowel-consonant sounds
semantics (word meanings)
The meanings of words and word combinations
Applying too broad a meaning to inappropriate situations
(doggie refers to all four-leg animals or daddy refers to all men)
Attaching overly restricted meanings to words
lexical v. grammatical
Lexical: Words connected to objects/events in people's physical, social, and psychological worlds.
Grammatical: Non-lexical words that affect the meanings of other words (have little meaning by themselves)
Inferring a word's general meaning after a single or two exposures
syntax (language rules)
Rules used to put words together into sentences
Single-word to express a complete thought
Inappropriate overuse of syntactic rule
("Buddy hitted me.")
Short, grammatically incorrect sentences
(generally used by toddlers)
Repetition of a child's short utterances in a more complete and grammatically correct form
Pragmatics (strategies of communication)
Conventions and strategies used in effective and socially acceptable verbal interactions
Knowledge and use of behaviors that are considered polite and socially acceptable in verbal interactions.
cultural differences (rules)
Silence vs talking
Children & adults
IRE cycles (adult initiation, child response, and adult evaluation)
Consciously understanding and thinking about language
(Words with multiple meanings; middle school years)
Language is biologically built-in and present at birth or soon thereafter (Noam Chomsky)
Result of modeling & reinforcement.
Focus on the specific cognitive processes used to acquire language
(Attention, Reasoning, Working Memory)
Social interaction and culture aid in language development
Language development provides practical benefits to children
What promotes language development based on theories?
Is language development the result of nature, nurture or both?
Students hear and speak the second language almost exclusively in the classroom
structured english immersion
Students receive intensive instruction in English over a year or so
Students receive instruction in language arts in their home language and all other subjects in their second language
Students are instructed in academic subject areas in their home language; simultaneously taught to speak and write in a second language.
What strategies can teachers use when working with ELL learners?
definitions of language development ( phonology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics)
Erikson's psychosocial stages
(1) trust v. mistrust (infancy)
(2) autonomy v. shame and doubt (toddler years)
(3) initiative v. guilt (preschool years)
(4) industry v. inferiority (elementary school years)
How can we promote emotional regulation?
The close, effective relationship formed between a child and one or more caregivers.
Children use attachment figures as a source of comfort in times of distress
Children appear ambivalent to attachment figures
(Child- little or no distress on departure, little or no visible response to return.)
Children tend to overly cling to attachment figures
(Sadness on departure but warms to stranger.)
Children lack a coherent attachment pattern
(Child - freezing or rocking on parent's return)
temperament (easy, slow-to-warm, difficult)
individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation with a constitutional basis
refers to children's ability to control reactions to stress, maintain focused attention, and interpret mental states in themselves and others.
personality (openness, extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness)
(Openness-Extent of being curious and imaginative
Conscientiousness-Extent of being persistent and organized
Extraversion-Extent of being socially outgoing
Agreeableness-Extent of being warm and sympathetic
Neuroticism-Extent of being anxious and fearful)