HBS Unit 2 Test
Final exam study guide
Terms in this set (55)
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
how does a reflex travel through the nervous system
from sensory neuron to motor neuron to muscle
(starts with a sensory neuron)
difference between a voluntary and involuntary response
involuntary responses are uncontrollable while voluntary responses are controlled
cause of ALS
no known cause
cause of Alzheimer's
a series of events that affect the tissues in the brain over a long period of time
cause of Huntington's
a genetic defect in chromosome 4 that makes certain parts of the brain waste away
cause of multiple Sclerosis
no known cause. assumed to be genetic
cause of Parkinson's
the presence of Lewy bodies and sometimes is genetic. your risk for this disease may be increased by your living enviornment
cause of Epilepsy
lack of oxygen at birth, or injuries to the head as a child. genetic
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
Na/K Pumps (in terms of action potential)
the pumps exchange the ions that run along the cell membrane
function of the pituitary gland
it takes messages from the brain and uses these messages to produce hormones that affect many parts of the body
hormones the pituitary gland is responsible for
HGH, TSH, ACTH, TRH, CRH, PRL, LH, ADH, FSH
What happens if blood sugar level is too high?
insulin is released to which allows glucose to be taken into cells to be stored as glycogen
What happens if blood sugar level is too low?
glucagon is released which turns glycogen back into glucose
causes of glaucoma
high pressure within the eye damages the optic nerve
causes of myopia (nearsightedness)
eyeball is longer and more oval shape which causes images to be focused in front of the retina
causes of hyperopia (farsightedness)
the eyeball is taller and shorter which causes images to be focused behind the eyeball.
causes of astigmatism
the cornea or the lens is oddly shaped
path of light through an eye
light enters the cornea, passes through the iris and then the lens where it is flipped. then it travels to the back of the eye where the light is received by the retina where it is sent through the optic nerve to the brain for precessing
type of corrective lens for myopic eyes
type of corrective lens for hyperopic eyes
function best in bright light and they process the wide arrange of colors
function best in dim light and process the shades of grey or eyes can observe
transparent bulge in the front of the eye, curved, begins refraction
the outside part of the eye wall; very tough, white, extrinsic eye muscles attach to it
space or black hole through which the light passes; can be eliptical in nature
area where the retina leaves the eye and becomes the optic nerve; no rods or cones here, thus the blind spot;
third part of the eye wall; contains rods and cones; photoreceptor cells; light rays are focused on it;
colored portion of the eye; smooth muscle; causes dialation and constriction of the pupil; by doing so it regulates the amount of light entering the pupil, first ring of tissue from pupil;
carries the nerve impulse to the thalamus and then to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, where vision is located;
transparent and elastic, continues refraction and focusing onto the retina; held in place by the suspensory ligaments which are operated by the ciliary body; has a convex shape;
jelly-like; made only once; maintenance of intraocular pressure which will keep the eyeball from collapsing;
clear, watery fluid, made by ciliary body; keeps cornea bulged out in front as well as maintenance of intra ocular pressure; made and contiually absorbed;
function of the frontal lobe
Motor function, behavior and emotions, memory storage, thinking, smell.
function of the parietal lobe
perception and elaboration of somasthetic sensations (touch, pressure, spatial relations)
function of the occipital lobe
function of the temporal lobe
auditory perception, speech and sounds, formation of long-term memory
function of the cerebellum
Coordination of movement, fine movement, balance, position sense (proprioception) and integration of sensory input.
function the of brain stem
Connects brain to spinal cord. Cordinates involuntary actions.
function of the motor cortex
controls voluntary movements. on rear of frontal lobes
function of the sensory cortex
at parietal cortex: receives information from skin and surface and sense organs.
function of gyri
folds (increase surface area)
function of sulci
depressions in the brain
function of the hypothalamus
Homeostasis, primary regulator of autonomic functions and some basic survival behaviors
function of the thalamus
Relay station for all sensation except smell. All memory, sensation and pain impulsespass through.
function of the medulla oblongata
respiration, cardiac, vasomotor, reticular formation
A long projection off the cell body of a neruon down which an action potential can be propagated.
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
Location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
node of Ranvier
A gap between successive segments of the myelin sheath where the axon membrane is exposed.
describe what happens as a message gets sent along a neuron
The electrical signal travels down the axon to the axon terminals where it signals the vesicles to release chemical signals (neurotransmitters) which then travel across the synaptic cleft to convey its purpose or message to its destination cell or tissue.