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Terms in this set (43)
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Two Factor Theory
the Schacter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
a resting period after orgasm, during which man cannot achieve another orgasm
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temp), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
brings on hunger
Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase. Orgasm feels imminent.
Enters the refractory period
the genital areas become engorged with blood
Fraternal Birth-Order Effect
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
According to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Relative Deprivation Theory
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Adaptation Level Theory
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
emotional release. The hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences--and the therapist's interpretations of them--released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self insight.
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
the part of personality that , according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weigh, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
hunger triggering hormone
periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement.
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