GEOL 1005 class midterm
Terms in this set (211)
A long, thin, fibrous silicate mineral with insulating properties, which can cause cancer when inhaled. Used to protect people from ot pipes
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
Chain reaction (nuclear)
the process during which fission of one nucleus triggers fission of others, which, in turn, induces fissions in other and so on
as Earth developed, denser materials such as molten iron sank to its center and less dense materials were forced to the outer layers
the study of the interactions between humans and their geologic environment
the process by which atomic nuclei combine to produce larger nuclei
Development that causes neither serious environmental damage nor such acute resource depletion as to imperil future development or quality of life
the outermost layer of the earth; composed predominantly of relatively low density silicate minerals
The tendency of a mineral to break preferentially along planes in certain directions in the crystal structure
the innermost layer of the earth; composed largely of iron
the solid, outermost layer of the earth, including the crust and a portion of the upper mantle.
the layer of the earth's interior between the crust and the core; rich in ferromagnesian silicates
1.) Occurs naturally
2.) Remains solid at surface temp & pressure
4.) Fixed chemical formula
5.) Crystalline structure
a member of the mineral group that has silicon and oxygen in its crystal structure
The interval of geologic time between Earth's formation about 4.57 Ga and the beginning of the Phanerozoic Eon 542 Ma.
Ground displacement and energy release associated with the sudden motion of rocks along a fault.
any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface.
The Ice Age
the most recent ice age, from 2 million to 10,000 years ago
A measure of the damaging effects of an earthquake at a particular spot; commonly reported on the Modified Mercalli Scale
Modified Mercalli Scale
a 12 point scale developed to evaluate earthquake intensity based on the amount of damage to various structures
a measure of the strength of an earthquake or the energy released during an earthquake
Richter Magnitude Scale
A scale that is used to compare the strength of the earthquakes based upon the amount of energy released
Increase of one order in magnitude= a 10-fold increase in wave amplitude
A generally accepted explanation for a set of data or observations; its validity has usally been tested by the scientific method
A conceptual model or explanation for a set of data, measurements, and
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
the volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time
Condition in which stream stage is above channel bank height
Material that is light or fine enough to be moved along suspended in the stream, supported by the flowing water;Accounts for about 90% of its total load and makes river look muddy-in suspension -above streambed = (silt/clay)
A body of water that flows within a channel
a general term for a rapid mass-wasting event
the downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the direct influence of gravity
is a stream's end point; where it reaches its base level
mass wasting by free-fall of material not always in contact with the ground underneath
the physical and/or chemical breakdown of rocks and minerals
solid, cohesive, aggregate of one or more minerals
magma that has reached the earth's surface
Doubling time (rule of 70)
70 divided by the percent growth rate
materials found in the earth that people need and value
a mineral's ability to resist being scratched
deformation of materials in response to stress
Solid particles suspended in air; includes soot, ask, and dust
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
an ion with a net negative charge
the smallest particle into which a chemical element can be subdivided
atomic mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
a ion that has a net positive charge
a chemical combination of two or more elements, in specific proportions, having a distinctive set of resultant physical properties
negatively charged subatomic particles; found orbiting the atom's nucleus
radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei)
atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons, so that it has a net electrical charge
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions
bonding that involves the SHARING of elecrons between combined atoms
describes materials possessing a regular, repeating internal arrangement of atom
Minerals that contain the elements carbon, oxygen, and one or more other metallic elements
a term describing silicates containing significant amounts of iron and/or magnesium; these minerals are usually dark-colored
minerals that contain sulfur and oxygen
minerals that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur
minerals that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon
substances that exist naturally in the earth's crust as single, uncombined elements
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
an igneous rock rich in ferromagnesian minerals; relatively low in silica
A molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
An igneous rock that solidified at a considerable depth underground. (large crystal size)
Liquid magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when liquid lava hardens.
extrusive igneous rocks formed by the eruption of molten rock at Earth's surface
solid (especially silicate) lacking a regular internal crystal structure
loose, unconsolidated accumulations of mineral or rock particles that have been transported by wind, water, or ice, or shifted under the influence of gravity, and redeposited.
The process that converts sediments into solid rock by compaction or cementation.
clastic sedimentary rock
formed from the products of the mechanical breakup of other rocks.
chemical sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension.
carbon-rich sediments derived from the remains of living organisms
A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with cooling magma.
metamorphism associated with large-scale mountain-building processes, involving increased heat and pressure
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands after a rock is subjected to differed stress.
The temperature above which a permanent magnet loses its ferromagnetic properties.
The study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock,specifically as it relates to the reversal of Earth's magnetic poles; also the magnetic properties that rock requires during formation
The process by which new lithosphere is created at spreading ridges as plates of oceanic lithosphere move apart.
polar wandering curves
Magnetic record trail that can be used to determine movement of a plate over time
A stress due to a force pushing together on a body.
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Pulls and stretches the material
stress that tends to cause different parts of an object to slide past each other across a plane; with respect to mass movements, stress tending to pull material downslope
Deformation proportional to applied stress, from which the affected material will return to its original size and shape when the stress is removed.
Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation.
Permanent strain in material stressed beyond the elastic limit; the material will not return to its original dimensions when the stress is removed.
A material which can undergo extensive plastic deformation without breaking.
to burst or break open
Describes materials that tend to rupture before appreciable plastic deformation has occurred.
Partially molten, "weak" zone within the upper mantle immediately below the lithosphere.
divergent plate boundary
an area beneath the ocean where tectonic plates move away from each other
Covergent Plate Boundary
A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving toward each other.
The region where oceanic plates sink down into the asthenosphere.
A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench
Area where the earth's lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture (fault) in the lithosphere.
An isolated center of volcanic activity; often not associated with a plate boundary.
Circulating masses of material driven by temperature differences (hot material rises, then moves laterally, cools, sinks, and is reheated to rise again).
planar breaks in rock along which there is displacement of one side relative to the other.
The slow, gradual slip along a fault zone without major, damaging earthquakes.
phenomenon whereby stressed rocks snap back elastically after an earthquake to their pre-stress condition
the point of first break on a fault during an earthquake
a point on Earth's surface right above the focus of an earthquake
a fault with predominantly horizontal displacement
a fault with predominantly vertical displacement
A reverse fault with very shallowly dipping fault plane
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
seismic waves that travel through the Earth's interior
Primary or push-pull wave, travels like sound wave
Direction of rock particle vibration parallel to that of wave propagation
Fastest rates of propagation, first arrival wave to the seismograph station
Body wave travels through Earth's interior and all media—solid and liquid
Secondary or shear waves - "slower" wave than P
The direction of particle vibration is perpendicular to that of propagation
Propagates or travels slower than P waves
Body wave, propagates through Earth's interior, but not its "liquid" layers
a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface; cause most of the damage in an earthquake
A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
smaller quakes produced after a major quake caused by rocks shifting to new positions
a quicksand condition arising in wet soil shaken by seismic waves; soil loses its strength as particles lose contact with each other
an area along a fault where relatively few earthquakes have occurred recently but where strong earthquakes have occurred in the past
phenomena that precede an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or other natural event, which may be used to predict the upcoming event
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
A light-brown to gray, fine-grained extrusive igneous rock with a felsic composition. The extrusive equivalent of granite.
An intermediate colored rock, generally gray greenish-gray, also classed as an aphanite because of the small crystal or grain size.
an eruption in which lava is extruded from narrow fractures or cracks in the crust
A low, flat, gently sloping volacno built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava
a volcano built of cinders and other pyroclastics piled up around the volcanic vent
relating to or consisting of fragments of rock erupted by a volcano
A tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials
a compact, bulbous, steep-sided structure built of very viscous, silicic lava emitted from a central pipe or vent
a volcanic mudflow deposit formed from hot ash and water, the latter often derived from melting snow on a snow-capped or glaciated volcano.
a dense, destructive mass of very hot ash, lava fragments, and gases ejected explosively from a volcano and typically flowing downslope at great speed.
A volcano with a record of eruption with recent history
A volcano that has not erupted for a long time, but may erupt again one day.
A volcano that has no recent eruptive history and appears very weathered in appearance; not expected to erupt again
Volcanic Explosivity Index
An intensity scale that rates a volcano's destructiveness and explosive power on the amount of matter it ejects during an eruption.
A large, bowl-shaped depression formed by the collapse of part of a volcano.
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
The cycle through which water in the hydrosphere moves; includes such processes as evaporation, precipitation, and surface and groundwater runoff
the total quantity of material transported by the steam; sum of bed load, suspended load, and dissolved load
a measure of the total load of material a stream can move
the slope of a stream over a certain distance
The lowest elevation to which a stream can cut down; for most streams, this is the level of the body of water into which they can flow, such as another stream, lake, or ocean
diagram of elevation of a stream bed along its length
sediment with a small range of grain sizes.
fan-shaped deposit of sediments at the mouth of a river
Flow of water from the land surface into the subsurface.
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
old meanders now cut off or abandoned by a stream
A winding, looping curve in the course of a river on soft, flat flood plain
a crescent-shaped accumulation of sand and gravel deposited on the inside of a meander
A stream or river that is composed of multiple channels that divide and rejoin around sediment bars
The downward movement of water through soil and rock due to gravity.
the elevation of the water surface at any point
the maximum stage reached during a flood event
floods that affect only small, localized areas
floods that affect large stream systems and large drainage basins
large basins that trap some of the surface runoff, keeping it from flowing immediately into the stream
An engineering technique to straighten, widen, deepen, or otherwise modify a natural stream channel.
Barriers composed of sediments made on either side of a river due to flooding.
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
Van der Waals bond
A secondary interatomic bond between adjacent molecular dipoles that may be permanent or induced.
relationship between grain size and growth time
Slow growth =large size, fast growth = small growth
a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals
Law of Original Horizontality
in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, layers of rock were originally formed lying horizontally
Law of supposition
The oldest layers of rock or at the bottom and the youngest are at the top
Depositional feature of sedimentary rock that forms as inclined layers of sediment are carried forward across a horizontal surface
Examples of foliated rocks
slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
examples of non-foliated metamorphic rocks
marble, quartzite, hornfels
Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships
principle that a fault or intrusion is younger then any other body of rock it cuts through
Law of Superposition
The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
Principal of Uniformitarianism
A principal holding that we can interpret past events by understanding present day processes; based on the assumption that natural laws have not changed through time.
boundary between crust and mantle
The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
A German scientist who proposed the theroy of continental drift
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
The geologist that discovered sea floor spreading
Major young mountain belts and shallow earthquakes form here
Major volcanic mountain belts, subduction zone and oceanic trench, earthquakes happen here
Subduction zone, deep oceanic trench, volcanic island arc, wide earthquake zones found
What causes earthquakes?
Sudden release of strain energy caused by rock rupture (through faulting)
What causes tsunamis?
moment magnitude scale
A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
A liquid's resistance to flowing
basaltic lava flow
rough, jagged blocks, slow moving, cooler temps. high viscosity
Less viscous, higher temp, with a smooth "ropy" surface texture, faster flow
a volcanic eruption characterized by an explosion directed away from the volcano more or less parallel to the ground surface; may occur when the side of a volcano collapses, as happened at mount St. Helens in 1980
The deposition of a layer of fine airborne rock and glass that have been erupted from a volcano
A mixture of volcanic ash, larger pyroclastic particles, and gas that flows rapidly along the earth's surface as a result of an explosive volcanic eruption.
Debris flows differ from mudflows in that:
debris flows contain material of larger grain size
unconsolidated sediment or soil + large quantities of water; both can carry huge boulders
Coarse particles moving along the bottom of river channel, less than 10% of the total load - these bounce and slide -gravel
The load contains dissolved materials such as sodium and calcium.
Measures the maximum size of the sediments transported by a river, the largest particle size that can be carried
The river flow slows down, and causes deposition, if:
Decrease of stream gradient
Decrease of velocity
Decrease of discharge
Change of channel shape
Change in the amount of stream load, e.g., land-use type change
Change of geologic setting, e.g., rock types along the river
examples of chemical sedimentary rocks
rock salt, iron ore, chert, flint, some dolomites, and some limestones
Examples of clastic sedimentary rocks
conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, siltstone, shale
examples of mafic rocks
basalt and gabbro
examples of intermediate rocks
diorite and andesite
examples of felsic rocks
granite and rhyolite
Examples of plutonic igneous rocks are
Gabbro and Granite
examples of volcanic igneous rocks are
basalt, rhyolite, andesite, and obsidian
Made up only of lava which is thick meaning it flows slowly, high viscosity, and hardens quickly, forming a steep sided volcano.
a wide gentle slopping volcano made of layers of lava and formed by quiet erruptions.
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
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