Prichard, Ross, Moore, G.E. Moore (Exam #2), John Stuart Mill (Exam #2), Immanuel Kant (Exam #2), W.D. Ross (Exam #2)
Terms in this set (89)
- ethical statements can be validated like scientific ones, using evidence
- morals should be based on scientific observation
What is ethical naturalism?
Goodness is the will of God, observable in his creation
Which theologican was an ethical naturalist and how?
F. H. Bradley
Which naturalist argued that moral perspective was determined from self-realisation and observing one's own position in society, and what book did he write?
hedonism - pleasure provides no final self-understanding
Kantian duty - no human satisfaction
What two naturalist theories did Bradley reject and why?
"we have found ourselves, when we have found our station and its duties"
Quote Bradley on when we discover our true selves.
hard work and obedience
What two things did Bradley think made up the good of society?
G. E. Moore
Which philosopher offered the first strong criticism on naturalism and book did he write?
"good is good, and that is the end of the matter"
Quote Moore on what 'good' is.
yellow - a simple idea that cannot be broken down
What did Moore compare good to?
Good is self-apparent and known intuitively
Describe Moore's idea of intuitionism.
Naturalists confuse the property of goodness with some other non-moral property that good things happen to possess.
What key term did Moore use to argue naturalism is impossible and how does this work?
"everything is what it is and not another thing"
Quote Moore on things being what they are.
Either you agree with his list of intrinsic goods, or you haven't thought about it properly
How did Moore account for moral differences?
H. A. Prichard
'Does moral philosophy rest on a mistake?'
Which intuitionist argued that you can't reduce moral obligation to an interest, and what article did he write?
Like apprehension of a mathematical answer
What did Prichard compare the apprehension of moral truth to?
"This apprehension is immediate"
Quote Prichard on how quickly intuition occurs.
reason - collecting together the facts
intuition - choosing the right course
What two different kinds of thinking in ethical decision making did Prichard think there were, and how did they work?
Some people have clearer moral intuitions than others
How did Prichard account for moral differences?
W. D. Ross
Which intuitionist built on the works of both Prichard and Moore?
prima facie duties
In a moral dilemma, our duties become apparent
What key term did Ross use to describe how we knew morals intuitively, and how did this work?
- promise keeping
- reparation for harm done
Name the seven prima facie duties that Ross argued for.
things that are right to do - eg good in themselves
things that are good to do - eg good intention
How did Ross differentiate between actions to judge true morality?
"There is nothing arbitrary about these prima facie duties"
Quote Ross on the nature of prima facie duties.
- We don't know the prima facie duty list is correct
- There are no rights
What two main difficulties with Ross ideas are there?
Prevailing models of science can change - eg chaos theory - and yet philosophers rarely want to change their views accordingly.
Why is reliance on science problematic for naturalists?
What was G.E. Moore's life span?
What is the book and chapter names by G.E. Moore?
The Subject Matter of Ethics
What is "The most fundamental question in all ethics?"
What is good? or how good is to be defined
What does Moore what to know about good?
the nature or essence of good
"Good is _______________"
Indefinable, simple thing rather than a complex thing (like yellow), is not composed of parts
What does ethics aim to discover?
the properties of all good things (Pg 4, P4, L4-6)
Define the naturalistic fallacy
a natural property such as pleasure, which is good, is thought to be the definition of good.
What are the two things we know when we experience it?
Good and Pleasure (both indefinable)
If good is not simple and indefinable, it must be what?
Complex or meaningless
Good is not a ____________ ___________ such as ____________.
Natural property, pleasure
Define Moore's Intuitionism
We know good when we experience it by intuition.
We can always ask the question......
is pleasure good?
We are not simply asking......
is pleasure, pleasure?
What was John Stuart Mill's life span?
What theories is Mill's chapter based off of?
Utilitarianism and Hedonism
Define utilitarianism/ Greatest Happiness Principle
The foundation of morals is utility (principle of utility) (Pg 17, L 1-4)
Define right actions
those that promote happiness (pleasure)
General Happiness of everyone (pg 22)
Define wrong actions
those that promote unhappiness (pain)
Happiness = ____________
Pleasure (pg 17, P 2, L 4-5)
Unhappiness = _____________
Pain (Pg 17, P2, L 4-5)
our highest goal is pleasure, pleasure is the end or aim of all humans
Consequences determine __________________
What is the doctrine of swine objection?
To claim pleasure is the highest end or aim of humans. It puts us on the level of pigs. (Pg 18, P3, L 8-13)
What are Mills two different kinds of pleasures?
Pleasures of intellect, moral sentiments, and imagination (higher) (Pg 18, P3, L16-23)
Pleasures of sensation (lower), Quality vs. Quantity (Pg 18-19, P3, L 1-4)
What was said by Jeremy Bentham?
"Pushpin is as good as poetry if it brings as much pleasure."
What kind of people would Mill ask of question?
People who have experienced both pleasures, people who are competently acquainted with and capable of appreciating both pleasures, their decision determines which pleasure is superior.
Happiness is not equal to _____________________
contentment or satisfaction (Pg 20, P1, L 7-12 & 17-21)
No one voluntarily chooses mainly the _________ _________, but they can lose (or never gain) the capacity for the ________ ____________.
Lower pleasures, higher pleasures
Define first principles of morality
are incapable of proof, something is desirable if people desire it (ought to be desired), something is visible if people see it (or can be seen)
What was Immanuel Kant's life span?
What was Kant's main work?
Ground work of the Metaphysics of Morals
What is Kant's Philosophy?
Deontological Ethics (opposed to Mill's Utilitarianism)
An ethics of duty or obligation
What is the only thing in the world good without limitation?
A good will (pg 88, P2, L 1-3)
What does Talents of Mind and Gifts of Fortune mean?
Are not good without limitation (Pg 88, P1, L 4-9)
The good will
good within itself and not good because of its effects (Pg 89, P1, L 1-3)
What is acting from duty?
Doing a right action because it is right (Pg 90, P1-2, L8-10, 1-5)
What is Acting in conformity with duty?
Doing the right thing because we are inclined to or from self interest. (Pg 90, P1-2, L8-10, 1-5) (Pg 90, P3, L1-7) (Pg 91, P2, L1-3)
Define Hypothetical Imperatives
We do an action as a means to achieve some other end of goal. (Imperatives of Prudence) (Pg 93, P2, L1-6) (Pg 93, P3, L4-8)
Define Categorical Imperative
an action is necessary or good in itself
How many categorical imperatives are there?
One (Pg 94, P2, L1-3)
Define a formal principle??????
we dont will the opposite of a universal law when we act immorally, we make exceptions for ourselves???????
Define Humans (Rational Beings)
End in themselves and absolute worth (Pg 96, P3, L1-4)
Objections of respect (Pg 97, P1, L4-10)
Have intringie value
What was W.D. Ross's life span?
What book is "What Make Right Acts Right" chapter from?
The Right and the Good
What type of ethical person is Ross considered?
Moral Pluralists- there are many moral obligations
What is Moore's ideal utilitarianism?
Acts are all right in proportion to the good they bring as a consequence (consequentialism) (Pg 112, P1, L9-12)
Right is the interests of the actor or agent (Pg 112, P2, L1-7)
What is Ross's opinion regarding egoism?
some duties are in the interest of others
What is Mill's Hedonistic Utilitarianism?
We must consider the pleasure of others.
What is Ross's opinion regarding Mill's Hedonistic Utilitarianism?
Pleasure is not the only good. Good is a broader category than pleasure.
We fulfill a promise because of the ________, not the ___________.
Past, future. (Pg 113, P3, L1-7)
What is case duties?
we choose based on which duty is more important than the other (Pg 113, P3, L21-25)
What is Moore's simplified version of our relations to others?
Some people we are in a relationship with have more claims on us than others. (Pg 114, P3, L1-10)
What is Conditional Prima Facie Duties?
Must be done unless they conflict with other prima facie duties (Rules) Tend to be our duty (Pg 115-116, #1-6) (Pg 117, P3, L5-11)
What are obligations?
Personal and dependant on our relations with others.
Why are Conditional Prima Facie Duties self evident when we reach the point of maturity?
They need no proof and intuitionism. (Pg 118, P1, L3-9)
What are Actual Duties?
Must be done, is our duty. (Pg 118, P2, L1-6)
Do we have moral principle to determine our actual duty?
What are the negatives with Actual Duties?
Are never certain, are not knowledge, they are not self evident.
Ross's Pluralistic Intuitionism is better than __________
Moores Ideal Utilitarianism
What is the data of ethics?
The convictions of thoughtful and educated people.
What is the criteria of moral knowledge?
The moral reflections of many generations.