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french revolution review sheet
Terms in this set (75)
the social and political system of France in the 1770s in which people were divided into three large social classes
King of France (r.1774-1792 CE). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Before the 1789 Revolution, "Old Regime" France was divided into three estates: First Estate: Roman Catholic clergy (approximately 1% population) Second Estate: nobility (approximately 2% population) Third Estate: all the rest, including the bourgeoisie, city workers, rural peasants, and artisans (97% population).
causes of french revolution
Enlightenment ideas spreading to the Third Estate (Bourgeoisie), French economic failure, Louis the 16th was a weak leader who paid little attention to his government
As a result of the French Revolution, France was pushed into a financial Crisis. Marie Antoinette was hated by the people because she spent the money of France as she pleased on her extravagant hair-dos. France's decision to help aid American radicals in their fight (The American Revolution) pushed France deeper into debt.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Author of "What is the Third Estate?" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. nationalism,Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe
tennis court oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
storming of the bastille
rumors flew about forces coming to attack Paris so citizens gathered weapons and on July 14 a mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed Bastille (Paris prison) Mob seized building and paraded around streets with dead men's heads on pikes. Fall of the Bastille became a great symbolic act of rev olution to the French people.
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Meeting of the National Assembly: feudalism was abolished and all Frenchman were subject to the same laws
declaration of the rights of man and citizen
the document stated that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights." These rights included "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression." The document also guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
olyme de gouges
a journalist that demanded equal rights in her "declaration of the rights of women and the female citizen"
women march to versailles
6000 women March to Versaille (13 miles) demanding bread and equality from men
jean paul marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
civil constitution of the clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.
Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
Member of the British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought (1729-1797)
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
(adj) watchful, motivated by caution, on guard against danger
Defensive against Russia until
Louis's imprisonment was followed by the September massacres. Wild stories seized the city that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats/priests were plotting with the allied invaders. As a results, angry crowds invaded the prisons of Paris and summarily slaughtered half the men and women they found.
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
equality, liberty, and fraternity
What three things did the third estate demand
13th July 1793
a Girondin supporter that stabbed Marat, a radical journalist, in his bathtub
committee of public safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
reign of terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
temple of reason
the new designation for the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. The renaming was part of the dechristianization movement in France. There was a ceremony there once celebrating reason in which patriotic maidens paraded it with white dress and walked where the altar once stood and a woman figure that represented liberty rose out of the temple.
Was created to promote dechristianization based on September 22,1792
thermidorian reaction 1794
The violent backlash in France against the rule of Robspierre that began with his arrest and execution in July 1794, or 9 Thermidor in the French revolutionary calendar. Most of the instruments of Terror were dismantled, Jacobins were purged from public office, and Jacobin supporters were harassed or even murdered.
rise of napoleon
a non-noble military member in the artillery, which he used effectively; gained fame by winning wars against other European countries; used that fame to get into the Directory; then made himself Emperor after a coup
. Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
coup de état
a French term that translates as "Stroke of state" meaning a strike at the state government. It involves the sudden overthrow of a government by a military or political group using force
Under the Roman Republic, one of the two magistrates holding supreme civil and military authority. Nominated by the Senate and elected by citizens in the Comitia Centuriata, the consuls held office for one year and each had power of veto over the other.
the ruler of an empire
A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
uniform system of laws for all citizens; equality before the law, religious tolerance, end to Feudalism; women lost many rights
concordat of 1801 with pope pius vii
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
bank of france
National Bank created by Napoleon that required every citizen pay taxes, Money used to make loans to businesses, controls money supply (inflation, recession)
A type of social institution. Provides a formal structure during childhood/transition into adulthood and an opportunity to instruct youth on the social norms, knowledge, skills, expectations needed.
A police state is a state in which the government exercises rigid and repressive controls over the social, economic, and political life of the population.
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
satellite kingdom- allied state
- Kingdoms surrounding France that were basically under french control during the reign of Napoleon. They paid taxes to France and their soldiers were used in the French army. Almost all of Europe was a satellite kingdom of France except for England, portugal, and small islands in the mediterranean
battle of trafalgar
On October 21, 1805, the British admiral Lord Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar off the Spanish coast. Nelson died in battle, but the British lost no ships. Trafalgar ended all French hope of invading Britain and guaranteed British control of the sea for the rest of the war.
British naval commander who defeated Napoleon Bonaparte in the Battle of Trafalgar; as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon Bonaparte was in warfare on land
confederation of the rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
the continental system
Napoleon demanded all trade with Great Britain to be stopped in an effort to win his Napoleonic Wars against them. Fails after nations lose money and turn against him
the berlin decree
(Issued by Napoleon on November 21, 1806) The decree forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe. His plan was to unite the European countries against Britain. But it failed because he could not control all of Europe. It eventually led to economic ruin for France, while little happened to the economy of Britain, which had control of the Atlantic Ocean trade.
order in council
an order signed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet; allows laws and regulations to be passed without a parliamentary vote
in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
result of war of 1812 us vs britain
Led to the end to the federalist and the US grew as a industrial nation
A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
A hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
Napoleon tried to add Russia to his empire; had a huge army and moved into Russia in September. Russians used the scorched earth policy; Russia retreated and lured them deeper in and burnt everything in their path
scorched earth policy
Destroying crops and livestock so that one's enemy has nothing to use for food as they invade. Used by the Russians when Napoleon invaded in 1812.
The weather in this period was even worse than Russia's usual winter weather. This meant that railways iced up and the shortages in the cities got even worse. This helped to contribute to the March Revolution.
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Metternich's plan for France: French borders would be reduced, but Napoleon could keep Belgium and he could stay Emperor. Alexander thinks the repercussions should be harsher; Britain also wanted Napoleon gone and they wanted France to give up Belgium. France says no to this.
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818
the big 4
France, US, Britain, Italy decided everything (Russia and the Central Powers were excluded)
treaty of paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders.
The principle that changes in one dimension can be offset by changes in another.
balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Period of time when Napoleon returned to France a year after his exile to Elba and restored himself as emperor for a few months. He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
battle of waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo, fought on 18 June 1815, was Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle. His defeat put a final end to his rule as Emperor of the French. Waterloo also marked the end of the period known as the Hundred Days, which began in March 1815 after Napoleon's return from Elba, where he had been exiled after his defeats at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 and the campaigns of 1814 in France.
duke of wellington
leader of the combined British and Prussian army; would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
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