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US History Final Exam (Martin)
Based on the Study Guide google docs
Terms in this set (142)
Landed on San Salvador in 1492; went for gold, god, and glory; his Governor of Hispaniola was terrible and treated everyone terribly (now called Dominican Republic and Haiti)
One of the only good leaders in Jamestown
Virginia Indian. Daughter of Powhatan, paramount chief of a network of tribal nations. Married John Rolfe and she died in England, helped ease tension with the colonists.
The Powhatan is the name of a Native American confederation of tribes in Virginia. It may also refer to the leader of those tribes, commonly referred to as Chief Powhatan
(1585-1622), English colonist in Virginia. He perfected the process of curing tobacco. In 1614, he married Pocahontas, the daughter of Indian chief Powhatan.
most famous for his "City upon a Hill" in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1692.
Founded colony called Providence which guaranteed religious tolerance to all settlers; went to Providence because he was banished from Massachusetts; dissenter who believed in separating church & state
Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania. He supported King Charles II
Founded the colony of Georgia to be a safe haven for debtors, British general and member of parliament
Preached the fiery sermon entitled "Sinners at the Hands of an Angry God"; played a very critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening
young english minister converted many to christianity, revival leader, helped spread the great awakening in Britain and in New England
John Peter Zenger
He was a German Immigrant, who published the New York Weekly Journal. He voiced his critical opinions through weekly journal about governor William Cosby. John was accused of libel, arrested and put into trial, but ended up not guilty. -Freedom of the Press
- Freedom of the Press
Emergency Prime minister; helps britain change their strategy during the war and raised taxes
from tribe Wampanoag, attacked English towns, devastating war in New England. Most famous war between settlers and native americans.
One of the founders of Philadelphia, inspired by the enlightenment, successful printer.
The Transatlantic trade of crops, technology, and culture between America and Europe & Africa, and Asia. Began with Columbus' first voyage in 1492
Salem Witch Trials
Occurred in Massachusetts, More than 200 people were accused of practicing witchcraft. 20 people were executed. spectral evidence.
A part of the Triangular Trade route between the West Coast of Africa and the West Indies
Rebellion based off of overpopulation and the boost in price of tabacoo.
caused slave codes which required slaves to have curfews
French and Indian War
Treaty of Paris (1763)
lead the Committees of Correspondence; one of the Founding Fathers; politician in Massachusetts
King George III
Declaration of rebellion contributed to change. Suppressing rebellion and sedition. King during America declared independence
1st President of the USA, commander and chief of the continental army during the American Revolutionary War
Was a key Enlightenment thinker; Jefferson used Locke's ideas to support U.S.' decision for independence in Declaration
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier and statesman. He fought alongside the colonists in the American Revolution and commanded the French national guard 1789-91 in the French Revolution.
traitor of American Revolution; he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and plotted unsuccessfully to surrender it to the British
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to convince the colonists to declare independence from Great Britain; Used illustrations and language that could convince the colonists; Focused colonial anger on the king as a tyrant instead of Parliament; Most influential of all the factors in swaying public opinion
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Occurred in 1775, "shot heard around the world" 500 soldiers took on the kings men, colonies won the battle first battle of the Revolutionary War
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the Revolutionary War, America wins using a 3 pronged plan
Battle of Yorktown
Revolutionary War battle in 1781 in Virginia; resulted in one British Army's surrender; the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender of Cornwallis' army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict.
law passed by the British parliament that taxed newspapers, legal documents, and other printed materials in the colonies; first direct taxation of the colonists
placed tax on glass, lead, and tea, paper, and paint.
Used to support British troops
A fight on the streets of Boston because of the increasing pressure from british troops; 50 civilians attacked the british troops: 3 killed and 8 wounded
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773, colonists disguised as Indians boarded 3 East India Company ships in Boston and dumped all the tea into the harbor. They were protesting the Tea Act which allowed the East India Company's tea to be cheaper driving American tea merchant out of business
Not in Coercive Act, intention not to punish colonies
Declaration of Independence
adopted by the Congress on July 4, 1776 that stated the 13 colonies are independent states and free from the British Empire forming the United States, written mainly by Thomas Jefferson; divided up in 4 major parts: Preamble, Declaration of Natural Rights, List of Grievances, Resolution of Independence by US
Treaty of Paris (1783)
the United States and Great Britain negotiated with each other which ended the revolutionary war and this recognized the Americas newfound independence
a leading nationalist; father of the Constitution; Federalist; key author of Bill of Rights; 4th president of the US
member of the first presidential cabinet. An author of the Federalist Papers dies to Aaron Burr in a due federal l
America's as 1st Vice President and 2nd President, leading advocate of American Independence from Great Britain, federalist
an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States.
Citizen Edmond Genet
Was sent to the US to promote American support in France's wars with Spain and Britain. Was ordered back to France but married the governor's daughter and stayed in NY.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams; set precedents that established vital powers of the federal courts. considered to be the father of the American system of constitutional law; Marbury Vs. Madison
Native American leader in the late 1700's and early 1800's; led a pan-Indian movement that tried to unite several groups despite their differences; During the War of 1812, allied with the British in Canada and helped in the capture of Fort Detroit.
Jefferson's vice president, first president to be tried for impeachment, killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel
John Quincy Adams
6th president of the United States, tariff of abominations, Lost second term to Jackson
Statesman from Kentucky; accused by Jackson of giving votes to John Q. Adams in return for post as secretary of state, Endorsed government promotion of economic growth, advocate of compromise of 1850
Constructed cotton gin in only 10 days, 50x more productive than removing seeds by slaves, muskets created for US army—interchangeable parts
A British Machinist, brought textile ideas from Britain to the US, memorized blueprints; father of the American industrial revolution
Created the steamboat named it the Clermont
tax increases negatively affect. Proved steps needed to be taken to strengthen government. Rebels determination to defy authority. Named after Daniel Shay
Alien and Sedition Acts
Raised requirements to be a citizen from 5 years to 14 years. President was given power to deport dangerous foreigners. Passed under Adam Administration. Cannot speak out against the president
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Resolutions passed in 1798 that attacked the Alien and Sedition Acts as being unconstitutional and void; They argued for states' rights and a strict of the Constitution. The resolutions were written in secret by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Federalists are people who supported the proposed constitution; Federalism. Series of essays trying to persuade the antifederalists to approve or ratify the constitution
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Also known as the freedom ordinance, first US organized territory,North-West of the Ohio River
Marbury v. Madison
McCulloch v. Maryland
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of New Orleans
Leader of New Harmony; communism and socialism; first free public school; failed due to internal dissention
Published the Book of mormon founded the church of latter day saints
American Baptist teacher, started the movement of adventism, Advent- The second coming, Miller lead a group called the Millerites
William Henry Harrison
the ninth President of the United States, an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office.
Preacher; US slave leader. He was convicted of murder and insurrection and hanged for organizing a slave uprising in Southampton, Virginia, in August 1831, in which at least 50 whites were killed.
John C. Calhoun
served 4 years as VP under John Quincy Adams and under Andrew Jackson but had conflict with him
7th President of the United States 1829-1837; supported minimal government and the spoils system. Vetoed recharacterization of the national bank, pursued harsh policy toward Native Americans; he won the Battle of New Orleans in 1812
Charles G. Finney
leader in the second great awakening, supported women and African American rights,
Henry David Thoreau
"government is best which governs least", simplicity, Refused to pay tax that supported the mexican war and slavery and was put in jail, wrote Walden and Civil Disobedience
"Father of American Education" From Massachusetts and believed teachers must be educated and trained, school should be divided by age into grades, compulsory attendance, and texes going towards public school systems.
researched prisons, realized there was bad treatment, created insane asylums
runaway slave, an African American abolitionist leader, became the famous spokesperson for the American Anti-Slavery Society, writing of his autobiography
Nicknamed the "moses" of her people; most famous conductor of the underground railroad; helped 300 slaves to freedom
William Lloyd Garrison
burned constitution and put into jail. Southern states opposed to him so they put a bounty on his head.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Leader of women's rights movement at Seneca Falls Convention. Key author of the declaration sentiments
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin" in 1852. Novel related to anti-southern feelings among northerners before the Civil War, depicted what was going on in the South & eye opener for the North
James K. Polk
11th United States President, First "dark horse", last of the Jacksonian democrats to sit in office.Young hickory he would only serve one term. Manifest Destiny
12th president of the United States, 1849-1850, member of Whig party and Mexican War officer.
leader of radical republicans during Civil war. He worked during the reconstruction period to restrict the power of ex-confederates.
brown thought he was a prophet from god to take out slavery, sons join and have sneak attack, take 5 people and brutally murder them in front of their families in Kansas at Pottawatomie Creek Massacre, part of Bleeding Kansas (the overall blood spilled while deciding if Kansas would be free or slave)
(dred scott decision) "slaves are not citizens " was a free man but he ended up getting found by his master and taken to court loses and is made a slave again
Stephen douglas proposed this to open Kansas/ Nebraska for settlement (repealed the Missouri Compromise) and allowed for the institution of popular sovereignty (allowing citizens to vote whether slavery should be legal)
Seneca Falls Convention-
Compromise of 1850
Trail of Tears
Northern Democrat; supported popular sovereignty and Freeport Doctrine; only candidate to campaign nationwide
16th president (republican) emancipated slaves didn't win a single southern state in his election Was assassinated at Fords theatre by John Wilkes booth
Ulysses S. Grant
American general during the Civil War , the 18th president of the United States, Grant defeated the Confederates and seized Vicksburg giving Union control of the Mississippi River
George B. McClellan
a major general for the first part of the American Civil War; Ran against President Lincoln in second election
Charles Francis Adams
was the son of John Quincy Adams and used by Lincoln as a diplomat to counter cotton diplomacy
founded american red cross
Robert E. Lee
Leader of the Confederate army. Sided with them for Virginia. President Abraham Lincoln asked him to take command of the Union Army but declined because his home state of Virginia was, despite his wishes, seceding from the Union. Surrendering at Appomattox Courthouse to Grant
president of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War, considered a weak leader, went to West Point
confederate general, got name from the battle of bull run,
William T. Sherman
Union general in the Civil War, known for his destructive march to the sea in 1864; known for "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States. Wanted to give Lincoln the city of Savannah for Christmas.
John Wilkes Booth
had a conspiracy to kill Abraham lincoln, his fellow conspirators fell though, kill lincoln fled and was killed in a barn
In the Union party,become president after Lincoln's death, 17th President, did not quit his post upon secession, supported Lincoln's military policies
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Former confed. general, after the war he was the first Grand Wizard of the KKK, know as an important commander even though he didn't have much of an education
President before Lincoln; Buchanan's efforts to maintain peace between the North and the South alienated both sides, and the Southern states declared their secession in the prologue to the American Civil War. Buchanan's view of record was that secession was illegal, but that going to war to stop it was also illegal.
Unions plan to constrict the south, to not allow anything in or out of the south. Split the South in half, down the Mississippi; gets its name from Winfield Scott
Created by Congress in 1865, the first major federal relief agency in the U.S. It aided refugees and freed slaves in 1865-1872 during the Reconstruction era of the United States. It helped with food, housing, education and health care
Abraham Lincoln issued this after the battle of Antietam, this freed slaves in the southern territory (areas in rebellion)
A short speech given by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 that has become one of the most loved and most quoted American speeches of all time. It expressed the grief of the terrible cost of the war and the reasons for preserving the Union.
Right of citizenship
Right to vote
Battle of Antietam
Also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, fought on September 17 1862 in Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
Battle of Vicksburg
Battle of Gettysburg
Compromise of 1877
Reconstruction Act of 1867
John D. Rockefeller
Large oil tycoon; started Standard Oil Company; known for the idea of horizontal integration; used trusts; known as a Captain of Industry
Carnegie Steel company, used vertical integration merged with JP Morgan to create U.S. Steel corporation
An American financier, banker and philanthropist and dominated corporate finance, Formed General Electric
Leader of the Knights of Labor, a national union formed in Philadelphia in 1869 that hoped to organize all working men and women, skilled and unskilled, into a single union
He gained control of the ErieRailroad in 1868 through stock manipulation. With Fisk, he attempted to corner the gold market, an effort that created the Black Friday panic on September 24, 1869.
Helped to found the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in 1881 and he also served as he pres. until he died.
Eugene V. Debs
organized the American Railway Union to lead the town's workers on strike (Pullman Strike)
started the Hull House for families instead of giving the poor money
wrote How The Other Half Lives, a book about how the people in poverty live, took pictures of the tenements
Horatio Alger, Jr.
Author who wrote about men working their way up from "rags to riches"
Frederic Winslow Taylor
tried to help factories become more efficient, broke each job down into a series of tasks and tried to reduce the time required for each task, "Taylorism"
Sherman Antitrust Act
law that forbids any contract or combination of companies that restrained interstate trade; too vague to be enforced
Gospel of Wealth
people should be free to make as much money as they can, but then give it away
George A. Custer -
He was a chief and was arrested for joining the ghost dance movement
Frederick Jackson Turner
Looked to expand the country, ideas formed the frontier thesis
Sand Creek Massacre
Black Kettle and other Indian chiefs agreed to camp at Sand Creek because they were promised protection
Helen Hunt Jackson
A poet who improved the treatment of Native Americans
An African American who migrated to the West after the Civil War
Dawes Severalty Act
Eliminated the concept of tribal ownership of reservations; Each head of household among Native Americans gains 160 acres, leading to available remaining land for whites; Promised full title to land and citizenship in 25 yearsàpromote assimilation
Wounded Knee Massacre
last battle of the Indian- American War around 300 Indians killed
people that received land through the Homestead Act
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