Physical Science Nuclear Chemistry
Terms in this set (64)
radiation emitted when a neutron decays
Which type of radiation is the heaviest
What type of radiation can be turned on and off electrically?
Which type of particle will not be deflected by electrical fields?
Which type of pure energy radiation is not deflected by electric fields?
Which type of radioactive particle has no electrical charge?
Which type of radiation is most penetrating?
Which type of radiation can be stopped by a piece of paper?
Which type of particle will be deflected the most by electrical fields?
Which type of radiation is most commonly used to check for broken bones?
The first scientist to classify radiation into α, β, and γ was...
An unstable nucleus
emits energy when it decays
A device for detecting nuclear radiation is called a:
What term describes when one element changes into a different element as the result of a nuclear reaction?
Which radioisotope is used to date fossils and artifacts dating back from 5,000 to 50,000 years?
What causes certain isotopes of elements to be radioactive?
The amount of time required for half of a radioactive element to decay
As a result of Alpha decay, the new element...
...has an atomic number 2 less and an atomic mass 4 less
As a result of Beta decay, the new element...
...has an atomic number 1 more and the same atomic mass
How is it that a negatively charged beta particle can be emitted by a nucleus?
neutron decays into an electron and a proton
What term describes the slight loss in weight that occurs in a nuclear fission reaction?
different forms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons.
a concept that provides a way to keep track of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions according to certain rules
refers to the positive charge on a metal atom that has lost electrons or to the negative charge on a nonmetal atom that has gained electrons
A compound that consists of positive and negative ions
a chemical compound formed by the sharing of electrons
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
model of an atom that shows electrons in circular orbits around the nucleus
The electrons in the inner shells of an atom; these electrons are not involved in forming bonds.
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
a process that occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus changes into another more stable nucleus by emitting radiation
a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy.
The Sun is this type of reactor. It fuses two hydrogen nuclei to create one helium atom
A nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
Lewis Dot Diagram
A method for representing an atom's valence electrons using dots around the element symbol.
A reaction that releases energy in the form of heat
A reaction that ABSORBS energy in the form of heat (feels cold)
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Number of protons and neutrons
Atoms gain or lose electrons to become...
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
ionization energies tend to ________________________ from left to right across the periodic table
_____________ is an ion, not a moleule
Lithium Fluorine forms a binary compound called
Copper(II) indicates that copper contains
ions with a +2 charge
the prefix di- means
Carbon dioxide has how many oxygen atoms
poly atomic means
elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
single replacement reaction
a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound
double replacement reaction
a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds
a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
When the forward and reverse paths of a change occur at the same rate the reaction reaches ______________
an element is stable when its outermost energy level is
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