USH TEKS Bios Set TWO
Terms in this set (30)
John F. Kennedy
Served in WWII, elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts in 1953, published the book "Profiles in Courage" and received the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1960. Youngest man, and first Catholic to be elected President. He sponsored the creation of the U.S. Peace Corps and said, "Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country." On November 22, 1963 he was assassinated in Dallas Texas.
Martin Luther King Junior
Pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. His letter from the Birmingham Jail outlined why civil disobedience was the best method for achieving civil rights. At the age of 35 he became the youngest man in history to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1968 he was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
First pilot to complete a nonstop, solo transatlantic flight. President Calvin Coolidge awarded him the Congressional Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Flying Cross. In 1938 he was awarded the German Medal of Honor and the U.S. accused him of being a Nazi sympathizer. He returned to the U.S. and later went to the Pacific front as a U.S. military advisor in WWII.
Henry Cabot Lodge
A conservative Republican in the U.S. Senate who supported expansion for the U.S. and formed a close alliance with Teddy Roosevelt, who he supported building the Panama Canal and the war with Spain. He believed that for the U.S. to be a factor in international trade and diplomacy it would need a strong army and navy. He clashed often with President Wilson and later led the charge to reject the Treaty of Versailles and its League of Nations.
West Point graduate who fought in WWI and WWII. After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor he used the "island hopping" strategy on the Pacific Front. After WWII ended he became the head of occupation forces in Japan until 1951. During his time in North and South Korea he came into conflict with President Truman over military strategy and was relieved of his command. He ended his military career with a speech to Congress where he said 'Old soldiers never die; they just fade away."
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Leading military strategist of the 19th and 20th century. His book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" detailed the important relationship between a strong navy and successful world commerce. Both Teddy Roosevelt and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge were strongly influenced by his theory with regards to U.S. foreign policy.
served as an aide-de-camp to General Pershing and later would become a Five Star General himself. He served as the Chief of Staff of the War Plans Division during FDR's time in office. After retiring from the military he became President Truman's Secretary of State and formulated a plan that would rebuild post war Europe and insure that the spread of communism would be contained.
First African American Supreme Court Justice - Before becoming a judge, one of his most memorable clients was Rosa Parks and Linda Brown (Brown v. Board of Education). In 1967 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court where he continued to make decisions that would further the equal treatment of all people.
U.S. Senator from Wisconsin who from 1947 - 1957 accused numerous individuals in the U.S. government of being Communist. These accusations gained credibility because of the Cold War tensions of the time. In 1995 the government declassified the documents from the Senate hearings, the documents together are known as the Venona Papers.
Navajo Code Talkers
An elite unit that served during WWII in the Pacific Theatre. They would use traditional Navajo words to code top secret documents. The code grew to include 600 words and was never broken. In 2001 they were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Senator from California, President Eisenhower's Vice President, defeated by JFK in the 1960 Presidential Election. In 1968 he was elected as the 37th President and served until he resignation in 1974. During his Presidency he was instrumental in the normalization of relations with Communist China and helped in creating the policy of detente.
Commander of the Pacific Fleet during World War II. In 1945 he represented the U.S. when the Japanese surrendered aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
First African American editor of the Harvard Law Review. U.S. House member and later Senator from Illinois who was elected in 2008 as the first African American President.
Sandra Day O'Connor
First woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court, appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981. On the Court she was the key vote in many cases because of her centrist position. Since her retirement in 2005 she has worked to promote civic education in the U.S.
known as the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement" for her refusal to give up her seat on a crowded bus. She was arrested for her actions which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott causing the bus company to go out of business.
Graduate of West Point who served under General Pershing. In 1917 he became the first member of the newly established U.S. Tank Corps, where he would win fame. In WWII he was with the allied forces during the invasion of North Africa, Sicily, and Italy. Often controversial for his definite opinions he was part of the fake plan that led Hitler to think the Allied forces would be attacking at Pas de Calais, France instead of the Normandy Landing (D-Day).
John J Pershing
Won his appointment to West Point. His early military career included the Indian Wars, fighting in Cuba during the Spanish American War, and the Philippines in 1903. As commander of the African American Regiment, 10th Cavalry he was given the nick name "Black Jack". Pershing was named the Commander-in-Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces in WWI. His troops were instrumental in the defeat of the Germans at the battle of Argonne Forest.
Notable actor who later served as the governor of California and then became the 40th President of the U.S. He is given credit for playing a critical role in the fall of the Soviet Union and the ending of the Cold War. By building the largest peacetime military in U.S> history, the Soviet economy was pushed to the brink trying to keep up. He was quoted as saying; we will have "peace through strength".
first gained national attention when he commanded the volunteer cavalry unit known as the "Rough Riders" in the Spanish-American War. After that he was elected Governor of New York. Serving as President McKinley's Vice President led him to the presidency after McKinley was assassinated. As president he took whatever action he felt was necessary for the public good. An example of this was his "trust-busting" efforts with regards to the railroads and other large trusts.
As First Lady she was known for her radio program and wrote her own newspaper column. During the Great Depression she exhibited her concern for others by supporting programs for youth employment and helping the poor. She boldly fought for civil rights for African-American as well as women's rights. After leaving the White House she continued her work for equality and helped to draft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Franklin D Roosevelt
Elected president in 1932 while the country was in the grips of the Great Depression. He proposed a sweeping economic reform package known as the New Deal. Elements of this program included Social Security, control over banks and public utilities and an enormous work relief program for the unemployed. Re-elected to a 2nd and 3rd term his attention was drawn to the growing international threat that would become WWII.
outspoken opponent of what she considered the radical feminist movement. She campaigned against the Equal Rights Amendment and founded her own pro-family movement. In 1990 she founded the Republican National Coalition for Life with the idea of advocating for a prolife Republican platform.
authored over 90 books and was a Pulitzer Prize winner. One of his early works "The Jungle" caused such an outcry over the conditions in meat packing plants that it led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and well as the Meat Inspection Act within just a few months of the book's publication. This showed the power of investigative journalism that led to the term "Muckraking".
appointed the U.S. Supreme Court in 2009, she became the first person of Puerto Rican descent to serve on the high court.
Senator from Missouri, FDR's Vice President who took over as Commander-in-Chief during WWII when FDR died leaving him to make the decision to use the atomic bombs that had been in development. He would later convince Congress to aid countries that were being threatened by communism; this aid would become known as the "Truman Doctrine". In addition to aiding other countries he also ordered the desegregation of the armed forces in 1948.
first African-American aviators to serve during WWII. This group of men was college graduates or undergraduates who were trained at Tuskegee, Army Airfield in Alabama. This highly decorated group was fighting two battles, the enemy overseas and the enemy at home (racism). The success and bravery shown by these airmen was one important factor in President Truman ending the segregation of troops with Executive Order 9981.
served as Governor of Alabama during the civil rights movement. He ran on a segregation and states right platform. In his inaugural speech, he proclaimed, "Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever." By his last term as governor in 1982 he had undergone a political turnaround from segregationist to winning support among African Americans.
graduated from the University of Missouri with a background in Economics, gained retail experience working for JC Penney's before opening his own small variety store, "Walton's Five and Dime". His huge success came from the development of new types of retail establishments such as membership warehouses and supercenters where he combined grocery items with variety store merchandise. "Walton's Five and Dime" grew to become today's Wal-Mart stores.
Ida B Wells-Barnett
One of the first African American women to run for public office, co-founder of the NAACP who sued for equal treatment before the Supreme Court Case of Plessy v. Ferguson. This lady was forcibly removed from her seat in order for it to be given to a white man. This began her life long fight for justice and equality for women and African-Americans.
founder of the Women's Christian Temperance Union and instrumental in organizing the Prohibition Party. This party advocated for the passage of the 18th Amendment which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol.