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Terms in this set (7)

BARRIER 1: Teacher attendance
EXPLAIN PROBLEM USING A READING: Banjeree and Duflo report that 50% teachers at some points during the day vacate their teaching duties for a period of time while theu are supposed to be in front of the children(poor economics), Duflo also found that teachers were absent 35% of schooldays, reflecting a significant barrier to children learning, they cannot learn if their teacher are consistently not doing their job
MARKET FAILURE: A teacher in poor areas are often in a position of a virtual monopoly, parents and students must tolerate high attendance because the supply of teachers is very low, there is often no alternative to the teacher which a community has, it is that teacher or not teacher, the teacher knows this and can behave poorly without worrying about being fired
REMEDY: Duflo VOXdev, Monitoring Attendance: Base teachers pay on attendance

BARRIER 2: Quality of education low: even when children attend school, they fall behind
EXPLAIN PROBLEM USING A READING: Remedying education: Banjeree: 44% of children aged 7-12 cannot read a basic paragraph, a skill which should be acquired by those ages, 50% cannot do simple subtraction. While enrollment and attendance rates continue to rise in the developing world, students do not seem to be learning
MARKET FAILURE: The focus of global efforts to improve education has been to ensure that more children in developing countries receive an education. The focus has not been on the quality of that education. School attendance and enrollment has skyrocketed as a result of these goals, as schools are built in droves, to ensure all children access to education. However, children in the schools are failing. Arguably, the goal should not have been to increase the supply of schools, but instead to increase the demand for schooling by increasing the quality of the schools, at this point, the massive boost in supply has not improved education conditions.
REMEDY: (Remedying education, Banjeree) Remedial education program with balsahki targetting weakest students (improve quality to increase demand and performance)
TRAP 1: Savings Trap, S-curve, This trap can be described by an S-shaped curve and a 45 degree line where the 45 degree line is where income today is equal to income tomorrow. For the people in the poverty trap zone, income in the future is lower than income in the future, people's income in this zone decreases until the S-curve intersects with the 45 degree line. A basic level of income where any additional income cannot help you escape poverty.
--large one time unexpected expenses(health emergencies)
--lack of financial literacy
---(Kraay) stagnant incomes not present in developing countries, have grown at least as fast as rest of world
----Big push aid policy to help people acquire useful assets which will help their incomes grow
(I am doubtful that a big push policy could be efficiently implemented, only fractions of aid given actually reaches the people it was meant for)
TRAP 2: Nutrition Trap: in this trap, people cannot achieve the level of nutrition necessary to work at a level which would allow them to increase their income
--exhausted soils, when people live difficult lives, they want to eat sweet and unhealthy things (ORWELL QOUTE)
---Deato found that the required caloric intake for a day of activity can be achieved with as a little as 5% of a daily wage. (Economic lives of poor, people do not efficiently spend money on food)
----Food donation is one way the trap might be resolved. Food donation is easier to manage than financial donation, food cannot become intercepted by bureaucrats, it can be handed out directly and have an immediate positive impact