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APES Unit Two Test (pt. 2)
Terms in this set (45)
What kind of isotopes are unstable?
Why can water be a solid, liquid or gas?
because of water's cohesion
Why is it hard to change the temperature of water?
because of water's hydrogen bonds
What is a unique quality of water?
water takes up more volume in solid form than liquid form
Why can it be bad that water is such a good solvent?
fertilizers, human waste, and other polluters can easily dissolve in water and be transported
What is water's pH when in equilibrium with Earth's atmosphere?
around 5.65 pH because dissolved carbon dioxide in the ocean makes it weakly acidic
Why can't we easily get rid of hazardous materials?
because of the law of conservation of matter
energy = ?
power x time
power = ?
energy / time
what do photons carry?
What do photons in long wavelengths have? in short wavelengths?
long wavelengths have low energy (radio waves), short wavelengths have high energy (x-rays)
what determines what kind of organisms can live in an ecosystem?
the form and amount of energy
energy is converted to ...
heat, motion, and sound
what does a high-quality energy source need?
a convenient, concentrated form so little energy can be used to move it (ex: gasoline)
What can provide clues to distinguishing ecosystem boundaries?
biotic and abiotic components
what kind of energy is glucose?
potential energy for organisms
producers both produce and consume...
How can we find the rate of photosynthesis?
by measuring compounds that participate in the reaction
NPP is about how much of GPP? (percentage)
what are the 7 processes of the carbon cycle?
photosynthesis, respiration, exchange, sedimentation, burial, extraction, and combustion
What are the fast and what are the slow components of the carbon cycle?
the fast are parts of the cycle involving biotic factors and the slow parts involve carbon in rocks and being stored for millions of years
- producers take in carbon dioxide to photosynthesize and incorporate it into their tissues
- this is returned when organisms respire and die
- decomposers break down dead matter and return carbon dioxide to the water or air by respiration
Carbon : photosynthesis and respiration
- carbon is exchanged between the ocean and the atmosphere
- the amount of carbon released from ocean equals the amount from atmosphere diffused in the ocean
- calcium carbonate can form and then precipitate into limestone
- fossil fuels can form when organic carbon is buried and incorporated in ocean sediments before it decomposes
carbon : exchange, sedimentation, and burial
- combustion of fossil fuels (whether by humans or naturally by volcanoes or fires) releases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
- combustion is an abiotic process
carbon : extraction and combustion
What are human impacts on the carbon cycle?
we've altered carbon cycling and created unbalanced and excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (ex: combustion of fossil fuels or tree harvesting)
- biotic: bacteria that converts nitrogen gas into ammonia and then converts to ammonium which is usable by producers
- abiotic: lightning or combustion process (fires, burning of fossil fuels, etc.) convert nitrogen gas into nitrate which is usable by plants
- nitrate is carried to Earth's surface by precipitation
nitrogen : nitrogen fixation
- the conversion of ammonium to nitrite and then into nitrate
- conversions done by specialized bacteria
nitrogen : nitrification
- producers incorporate elements into their tissues
- primary consumers each these producers and some of the producer's nitrogen is assimilated into the consumer's tissues and the rest is eliminated as waste
nitrogen : assimilation
- fungal and bacterial decomposers break down organic nitrogen found in dead bodies and convert it into inorganic compounds
- organic nitrogen into inorganic ammonium which is taken up by producers or turned into nitrite and nitrate through nitrification
nitrogen : mineralization/ammonification
- conversion of nitrate into nitrous oxide gas and then nitrogen gas which is emitted into the atmosphere
- conducted by specialized bacteria that live under anaerobic conditions
nitrogen : dentrification
what are the human impacts on the nitrogen cycle?
- leaching and transportation of dissolved molecules
- excess inputs of nitrogen can affect an ecosystem
what is phosphorus typically found as?
- biotic: producers on land and in water take up inorganic phosphate and assimilate the phosphorus into their tissues as organic phosphorus
phosphorus: assimilation and mineralization
- abiotic: phosphorus isn't very soluble in water so much of it precipitates into phosphate-rich sediments in the ocean
- these sediments life these up and form mountains
- phosphate rocks in mountains are slowly weathered and brings phosphorus to land and water habitats
phosphorus : sedimentation, geological uplift, and weathering
why is phosphorus a limiting nutrient?
It is not very soluble in water, it doesn't have a gaseous phase, and it is held in tightly by soils so it doesn't leach easily
What are the human impacts on the phosphorus cycle?
- humans mines phosphate sediments to create fertilizer
- when this fertilizer is used, excess phosphorus can leach into bodies of water
- aquatic systems have low availability, so phosphorus can greatly increase producer growth
- algae populations grows creating agal bloom
- algae decomposition takes up a lot of oxygen
- hypoxic water
- kills fills
- creates hypoxic dead zones
- household washing detergents are discharged into stream, rivers, etc. fertilizing them
- no gaseous phase
- deposited from air in small dust particles
- in limestone and marble
the calcium, potassium, and magnesium cycles
why is potassium easier to be leached that calcium or magnesium?
- calcium and magnesium are positively charged ions attracted to negative charges present on most surface soil particles
- potassium is only weakly attracted to soil particles making it more likely to be leached away by water moving through soil
how are volcanic eruptions are involved in the gaseous phase of the sulfur cycle?
they are a natural source of atmospheric sulfur in the form of sulfur dioxide
How do human activities add sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere?
the burning of fossil fuels and the mining of metals such as copper
what is sulfuric acid?
sulfur dioxide is converted into sulfuric acid when it is mixed with water, and it is then carried back to Earth when it rains. Acid precipitation is harmful to land and water ecosystems
what is sulfur's most common form?
sulfur exists mostly in rocks and is released into soils and water when the rocks weather
how do producers absorb sulfur?
producers absorb sulfur through their roots in the form of sulfate ions and then it cycles through the food web
what are the steps of the hydrological cycle?
transpiration, evaporation, precipitation, surface run off, condensation, infiltration
what are the 'new-age' effects on the carbon cycle?
increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and unbalanced cycling between reservoirs - especially from geosphere to atmosphere
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