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Europe's highest mountain, extending in an arc from the Mediterranean coast to the Balkan peninsula.

Apennine Mountains

A mountain range on the Italian peninsula.


one of the 12 closest followers of Jesus, chosen by him to help him teach.


A high arched, structure built to carry water over long distances.


The science of planning and constructing buildings.


First Roman emperor; won the civil war following Julius Caesar's assassination and went on to unify the empire and establish the Pax Romana


A small town south of Jerusalem where Jesus is said to have been born.


A church official who leads a large group of christians in a particular region.

Byzantine Empire

The name by which the eastern half of the Roman empire became known.


An ancient city on the north coast of Africa.


A periodic count of all the people living in a country, city, or region.


A religion based on the teachings of Jesus, as recorded in the New Testament.

civil war

An armed conflict between groups within one country.


Ruler of the Egyptian government in Alexandria who backed Caesar in the civil war he waged from 49BC to 45 BC.


The largest, most famous stadium in Rome.


Roman emperor who founded Constantinople as the new eastern capital of the Roman empire.


A city established as the new eastern capital of the Roman empire by the emperor Constantine in 330 AD


One of two elected officials of the Roman Republic who commanded the army and were the supreme judges.


A ruler who has absolute power.


Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part.

Eastern Orthodox Christianity

A branch of christianity that developed in the Byzantine empire and that did not recognize the pope as the supreme leader.


"The marketplace or public square of an ancient Roman city, the center of judicial and business affairs and a place of assembly for the people or

a court or tribunal:"



An ancient region and Roman province that included most of present-day France.


A Roman athlete, usually a slave, criminal, or prisoner of war; who was forced to fight for the entertainment of the public.


General of Carthage who marched his army from Spain to Rome in the 2nd Punic War.


Religious leader and founder of Christianity.


The land in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region populated by Jews at the time of the Roman Empire.

Julius Caesar

Roman general who became the republic's dictator in 45 BC.


A plain on the west coast of Italy on which the city of Rome was built.


Historian of the Roman Republic who wrote about the struggle between plebeians and patricians of Rome.


A special leader the Jewish people believe will be sent by god to guide them and set up God's rule on Earth; Christians believe Jesus to be the Messiah.


A small town in Northern Judea, where according to the New Testament, Jesus grew up.

New Testament

The 2nd part of the Christian bible; containing the descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and of his early followers.


Region in Southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the Jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea; in recent times, the British protectorate that became Israel in 1947.


A large, domed temple built in ancient Rome to honor many gods and goddesses.


A simple story that contains a message or truth.


A member of the noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic.


Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman World.

Pax Romana

A period of peace for the Roman Empire that began with the rule of Augustus in about 27BC and lasted around 200 years.


One of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first pope, or bishop of Rome.


A common farmer, trader, or craftworker in ancient Rome.


An ancient city in Southwestern Italy that was buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.


The bishop, or church leader of Rome and the head of the Roman Catholic Church.

Punic Wars

A series of conflicts between Rome and Carthage in the 200'sBC ending in a victory for Rome.


A person who is elected by the citizens to speak or act for them.


A form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them.

Roman Catholicism

A branch of Christianity that developed in the Western Roman empire and that recognized the Pope as its supreme leader.


The former center of both the ancient Roman Republic and the Roman empire; capital of present-day Italy.


Roman general who defeated Hannibal in the Battle of Zama outside Carthage, North Africa in 202 BC.


The lawmaking body and most powerful branch of government in Ancient Rome's republic.


An island in the Mediterranean Sea off southwest tip of the Italian peninsula.

Tiber River

A river flowing southward from north-central Italy across the Latium plain, and into the Tyrrhenian Sea.


An elected leader of ancient Rome who represented the interests of the plebians.

Twelve Tables

The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by the patricians about 450BC, that became the foundation of Roman law.


Site in Northern Africa where the Roman army defeated the Carthaginian army in 202 BC

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