Upgrade to remove ads
POLS 230 Exam 2
Terms in this set (11)
The authors note: "At least five general factors contribute to bureaucratic power and
shape presidential-bureaucratic relations...". Briefly describe the two that you believe
are most important (and explain why you believe they are significant).
Bureaucratic Inertia and momentum:
Advantageous to the permanent gov employees and disadvantageous to the president because they are working on different timelines. Their goal is to maintain "base" while getting whatever increase possible. They can afford to be patient, but it can work against presidents who want to make changes. About 75% of the budget is mandatory expenditures, so the president has little room for change. This is what Reagan was trying to bypass with his top down approach.
Bureaucratic Personnel: With the creation of the civil service system the spoils system associated with the federal bureaucracy dwindled along with the amount of control the president had over the federal employees. This greatly limited presidential control and created what our book referred to as a "gov of strangers" which refers to the political executives that the president appoints to oversee the careerists.
How do presidents control the bureaucracy? Identify and describe the three most
common ways that presidents are able to do this.
Appointment and removal of subordinates- The pres has broad appointment powers, although controlled by the senate, and has removal power, although limited to "purely executive offices"
Executive orders and unilateral action- executive orders and presidential memorandum. this is important and comes in handy when conflict with congress prevents the president's policy goals from being accomplished through legislation.
Prepare the budget and regulate expenditures- form the budget which controls the amount of spending by federal agencies. The budget reveals the president's spending priorities, sets the pace for program initiatives, and either rewards or hinders certain executive branch groups.
Explain the selection process of Supreme Court justices.
The selection of supreme court justices is reserved for the President but subject to conformation and great scrutiny from the Senate. Presidents look at a nominee's qualifications in a few different categories such as professional (no legally mandated qualifications), representational (party, location, race, gender, ethnicity) and doctrinal (shares the president's political philosophy). Factors such as timing of the vacancy can also play a large role, as well as the view of the outgoing justice. Once nominated they are then confirmed by the senate with a simple majority.
Describe the role of the solicitor general, and how President Reagan differed from other
presidents in his use of this position.
4. The solicitor general is appointed by the president, with the advice and consent of congress. Decides which cases the gov loses in federal district court will be taken to the court of appeals, he also decides which of the losses in the lower courts will be taken before the supreme court. In other words like our book said it "not only determines if the executive branch goes to the supreme court, but what it will say there". Also, in charge of amicus or friend of the court filings pertaining to other cases pending before the court in which the federal gov is not a party. Reagan used the office more aggressively to push a conservative policy agenda by having Rex Lee persuade the Court to change its rulings on things such as abortion, prayer in public schools, and other core conservative matters.
Describe each of the three "policy streams" that are discussed. Is this a useful way of
conceptualizing the domestic policy process? (Explain your answer.)
Problems and issues: these issues move on to the agenda because their seriousness makes them unavoidable or due to presidential initiative. Ex. USA PATRIOT Act after 911 or the focus on energy policy after the oil spill.
Solution: once a problem is recognized, the availability of a solution will determine how far it can rise on the president's agenda. These solutions can range from direct, symbolic, or no action. The ideas for these solutions can come from several places and ideas are often jumbled together in what our book referred to as a type of policy soup. The ideas that are in a president's policy proposal are evaluated on their economic, political, and technical feasibility.
Political Factors: these are factors that affect the setting and implementation of the president's agenda like national mood, political forces, and events within the government.
Yes, I think this is very useful in helping to understand how these policy streams flow mostly independent of each other, but when one or more converge can open a window through which the president can enact policy change.
What are domestic policy staffs? Compare and contrast the use of domestic policy staffs
by two presidents.
Chapter 9 contains the section "Presidents and the Economy: 1932-2015." Describe the
efforts of at least two presidents to manage or improve the economy, and assess
whether their actions were successful.
the president's role as manager of the economy dates back to FDR's New Deal which set out to use federal gov power to revive the economy from the great depression. His actions appeared successful, but in actuality it was due to the increased government spending brought about by WWII. Nixon also made attempts to improve the economy. He did this through the conservative method of reducing federal spending to balance the budget, and by adopting wage and price controls when the nation was not mobilized for war. These controls were only a temporary fix, and congressional republicans suffered the political consequences.
The "economic subpresidency" consists of the CEA, OMB, the Treasury Department,
and the Fed. Which one do you believe plays the most important role? (You could make
a strong case for any of them!) Why?
I believe the OMB plays the most important role due to the fact that it is the principle instrument through which the president fashions the expenditure component of fiscal policy. Main focus is to allocate resources to federal agencies through the shaping of the president's budget.
Our textbook describes a "search for a new consensus" for national security policy.
What was the old consensus? Has any president been able to establish a new
consensus? Explain your answer.
After WWII the national security consensus was fairly simple. It was devoted to the military containment of communism. Due to its bipartisan support a succession of presidents were able to continue this momentum, and have a virtually free hand in formulating foreign policy. This persisted until the Tet offensive. I think the next closes thing we see to consensus is the war on terror after 9/11 under the Bush administration, but nothing compared to the overwhelming, long lasting, and bipartisan consensus on containment.
Describe the different management styles of Presidents George W. Bush and Barack
Obama concerning national security.
The main difference between the two was the fact that Bush depended more heavily on advisers such as Rice, while Obama made himself the central figure or as the book put it "built a machine in which all the roads lead to and from him. Bush's policy making structure resembled Eisenhower's formalized system while Obama's was more collegial. Another key difference was that there was less conflicting ideas from Obama's national security advisers compared to those in the Bush administration.
Reasons for pardon power
-an executive check of sorts on legislation
-sometimes it is more fair and just to have someone step in. for instance if someone violated a law in the name of national security it might be more fair to pardon him/her
You might also like...
Gov Unit 5 Free Response
concepts for chapter 7 and 8 (president and bureau…
ap government chapter 12 the presidency frq's
Other sets by this creator
Spanish expressions for "take"
Span301 Exam 4
Spanish Exam 3 Vocab
spanish comp 2