How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

33 terms

general psych chapter 10

STUDY
PLAY
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
curiosity
a drive in young children and baby monkeys to explore the relatively unfamiliar that is not a motive that fulls any immediate physiology need
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs
Maslow's pyramid
physiology needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, and self-transcendence needs
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. when its level is low we feel hunger
insulin
secreted by the pancrease; controls blood glucose
orexin
secreted by the hypothalamus; triggers hunger
ghrelin
secreted by empty stomach; sends "I'm hungry" to the brain
obestatin
secreted by stomach; sends "I'm full" signals to the brain
PYY
secreted by the digestive tract; sends " i'm NOT hungry" signals to the brain
leptin
secreted by fat cells; sends signals to the brain diminishing the rewarding pleasure of food
set point
the pint at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. when body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
neophobia
dislike of things unfamiliar
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a person (usually adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
binge-eating disorder
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
body mass index
how people are gauged as to how healthy they are by comparing the height and weight
gender and weight discrimination
those who are overweight are less likely to be hired and/or promoted. especially women who are also unlikely to be married as a result
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
estrogens
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts in females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics. in nonhuman females, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but the additional of it in males stimulates growth of the male sex organ in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty
biological influences of sexual motivation
sexual maturity, sex hormones, sexual orientation
psychological influences of sexual motivation
exposure to stimulating conditions and sexual fantasies
social-cultural influences of sexual motivation
family and society values, religious and personal values, cultural expectations, and media
Reasons fro teen pregnancy and sexual activity
ignorance, minimal communication about birth control, guilt related to sexual activity, alcohol use, mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex, or the other sex