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a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior


a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need


a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state


a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior


a drive in young children and baby monkeys to explore the relatively unfamiliar that is not a motive that fulls any immediate physiology need

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs

Maslow's pyramid

physiology needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, and self-transcendence needs


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. when its level is low we feel hunger


secreted by the pancrease; controls blood glucose


secreted by the hypothalamus; triggers hunger


secreted by empty stomach; sends "I'm hungry" to the brain


secreted by stomach; sends "I'm full" signals to the brain


secreted by the digestive tract; sends " i'm NOT hungry" signals to the brain


secreted by fat cells; sends signals to the brain diminishing the rewarding pleasure of food

set point

the pint at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. when body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure


dislike of things unfamiliar

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a person (usually adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

binge-eating disorder

significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa

body mass index

how people are gauged as to how healthy they are by comparing the height and weight

gender and weight discrimination

those who are overweight are less likely to be hired and/or promoted. especially women who are also unlikely to be married as a result

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning


sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts in females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics. in nonhuman females, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.


the most important of the male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but the additional of it in males stimulates growth of the male sex organ in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty

biological influences of sexual motivation

sexual maturity, sex hormones, sexual orientation

psychological influences of sexual motivation

exposure to stimulating conditions and sexual fantasies

social-cultural influences of sexual motivation

family and society values, religious and personal values, cultural expectations, and media

Reasons fro teen pregnancy and sexual activity

ignorance, minimal communication about birth control, guilt related to sexual activity, alcohol use, mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex, or the other sex

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