Chapter 14 vocab APUSH
Terms in this set (25)
he was a british mechanic that moved to america and in 1791 invented the first american machine for spinning cotton. he is known as "the father of the factory system" and he started the idea of child labor in america's factories.
invented the mechanical reaper, which allows to harvest crops more quickly
an american inventor who developed the cotton gin. also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
he was a german immigrant who fought for political freedom in his home country, and against slavery and unfair treatment of the native americans in America. nineteethne-century. he thought he knew everything about america until he got here and fond out there was no freedom at all becuase there wasnt any freedom of speech. after 10 years in america lincon then names him american minister to spain, then serves as a general in the union army, newspaper correspondent, an editor, a u.s senator from missouri, and the secretary of the interior.
inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. these enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
an american painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with alfred vail, of the morse code
governor of new york who started the erie canal project. his leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west new york to the hudson.
Urged women to enter the teaching profession. Was a noted educator, renowned for her forthright opinions on women's education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of a kindergarten into children's education.
From agricultural to industrial. begun about 1760 in england and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.
the liability of a firm's owners for no more than the capital they have invested in the firm. A form of business ownership in which the owners are liable only up to the amount of their individual investments.
improvements in: roads-enabled settlers and merchants to reach the west, boats-steamboat made commercial agriculture feasible in the west, canals (eerie canal)-connected large cities to each other and made it easier to trade, railroads-connected burgeoning cities to rivers and canals
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
cult of domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands. the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
invented by eli whitney in 1793. it removed seeds from cotton fibers. now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
Steamboat. fulton's steamboat in 1807 which powered on/by a newly designed engine. it took the clermont 32 hours to go 150 miles from new york to albany.
they were a group of boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. they eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of massachusetts. with pride the boston associates considered their textile mill in lowell, massachusetts a showplace factory. the labor there was mostly new england farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."
american boats, built during the 1840's in boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers. second quarter of 1800s. long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like china and between the eastern and western united states.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
semisecret irish organization that became a benevolent society aiding irish immigrants in american.
a society of irish miners who engaged in a violent confrontation with pennsylvania mining companies. members of a secret irish organization. many historians believe they were present in the anthracite coal fields of pennsylvania in the united states from approximately the time of the american civil war until a series of sensational arrests and trials in the years 1876−1878. evidence that they were responsible for coalfield crimes in the u.s. rests largely upon allegations of one powerful industrialist, and the testimony of one pinkerton detective. fellow prisoners also testified against them, but some believe these witnesses may have been coerced or bribed
General Incorporation Law
this was a law created to greatly help in "building" capitalism. it stated that businesspeople could create a corporation if they complied with the terms of the law. allows corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature. it also refers to a law enabling a certain type of corporation, such as a railroad, to exercise eminent domain and other special rights without a charter from the legislature.
established in 1860 to carry mail quickly from missouri to sacramento. tiny people would ride ponies to stations ten miles apart and it would only take 10 days. the enterprise lost money and collapsed after 18 months, but it boosted technology later leading to machinery.
Commonwealth vs Hunt
a landmark ruling of the ma supreme court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers. case heard by the massachusetts supreme court. the case was the first judgement in the u.s. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
new york city's famous political machine. a political organization within the democratic party in new york city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Order of the Star Spangled Banner
the noisier american "nativists" rallied for political action. in 1849 they formed this, which soon developed into the formidable american, or "know-nothing," party—a name derived from its secretiveness. Protected immigrants.
made in 1846 by elias howe; made making clothing faster and cheaper.
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