Upgrade to remove ads
Bio 1030: Perez: Exam 2
Terms in this set (69)
Skeletal muscle (Voluntary Muscle)
Attach to bones or skin and control locomotion and any movement that can be consciously controlled (formed from skeletal muscle tissue)
Key Word- consciously controlled
What Do skeletal muscles look like?
long and cylindrical in appearance; when viewed under a microscope, skeletal muscle tissue has a striped or striated appearance
What are the striations in skeletal muscle caused by?
-caused by the regular arrangement of contractile proteins (actin and myosin).
- Dark A bands and light I bands repeat along myofibrils, and the alignment of myofibrils in the cell causes the entire cell to appear striated or banded.
What is actin?
a globular contractile protein that interacts with myosin for muscle contraction
Which muscle has multiple nuclei present in a single cell?
What is Smooth muscle tissue(involuntary Muscle)?
occurs in the walls of hollow organs such as the intestines, stomach, and urinary bladder, and around passages such as the respiratory tract and blood vessels. Smooth muscle has no striations, is not under voluntary control, has only one nucleus per cell, is tapered at both ends
Where is cardiac muscle tissue found?
only found in the heart, and cardiac contractions pump blood throughout the body and maintain blood pressure.
What are characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue?
-has one nucleus per cell
-distinguished by the presence of intercalated disks
The plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber. Is the site of action potential conduction, which triggers muscle contraction.
-Within a muscle fiber. (LOTS per fiber)
-Are long cylindrical structures that lie parallel to the muscle fiber and run the entire length of muscle fiber.
-they attach to the sarcolemma at their ends, so that as myofibrils shorten, the entire muscle cell contracts
-Within a myofibril. Is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle.
- A sarcomere is defined as the distance between two consecutive Z discs or Z lines; when a muscle contracts, the distance between the Z discs is reduced.
smaller structures within a myofibril. Contains 2 categories; thick filaments and thin filaments
a myofilament , do not extend all the way into the A bands, leaving a central region of the A band that only contains thick filaments.
-Made mostly of the actin protein. Contains tropomyosin and troponin.
a myofilament, occur only in the A band of a myofibril. Composed of the protein myosin.
How does the muscle contract?
the sarcomere must shorten. However, thick and thin filaments—the components of sarcomeres—do not shorten. Instead, they slide by one another, causing the sarcomere to shorten while the filaments remain the same length.
What is the binding site for myosin attachment
Do thick and thin filaments—the components of sarcomeres-- shorten?
NO!! They slide by one another, causing the sarcomere to shorten while the filaments remain the same length
What is the mechanism of contraction?
the binding of myosin to actin, forming cross-bridges that generate filament movement
When does the muscle contract?
as myosin heads bind to actin and pull the actin inwards.
What must you have for a muscle to contract?
blocks myosin binding sites on actin molecules, preventing cross-bridge formation and preventing contraction in a muscle without nervous input.
binds to tropomyosin and helps to position it on the actin molecule; it also binds calcium ions.
fibers contract relatively slowly and use aerobic respiration (oxygen and glucose) to produce ATP.
fibers have fast contractions and primarily use aerobic respiration, but because they may switch to anaerobic respiration (glycolysis), can fatigue more quickly than slow twitch fibers.
What is the speed of contraction is dependent on?
how quickly myosin's AT-Pase hydrolyzes ATP to produce cross-bridge action. Fast fibers hydrolyze ATP approximately twice as quickly as slow fibers, resulting in much quicker cross-bridge cycling (which pulls the thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomeres at a faster rate).
are one of the more widely known agents used to boost muscle mass and increase power output. Anabolic steroids are a form of testosterone, a male sex hormone that stimulates muscle formation, leading to increased muscle mass.
-a hormone normally produced in the kidneys, which triggers the production of red blood cells. The extra oxygen carried by these blood cells can then be used by muscles for aerobic respiration.
-Used by endurance athletes to boost Oxygen level
Human growth hormone (hGH)
it can facilitate building muscle mass, its main role is to promote the healing of muscle and other tissues after strenuous exercise. Increased hGH may allow for faster recovery after muscle damage, reducing the rest required after exercise, and allowing for more sustained high-level performance.
What are some drawback to anaerobic steroids?
use has been linked to infertility, aggressive behavior, cardiovascular disease, and brain cancer.
What is the core of the circulatory system?
What are heart contractions driven by?
driven by intrinsic electrical impulses that the brain and endocrine hormones help to regulate
What is the circulatory system and what is it used for?
A network of cylindrical vessels: the arteries, veins, and capillaries that emanate from a pump, the heart. Used to transport nutrients and gases through the body
What is a closed circulatory system?
blood is contained inside blood vessels and circulates unidirectionally from the heart around the systemic circulatory route, then returns to the heart again.
What is an open circulatory system?
the blood is not enclosed in the blood vessels but is pumped into a cavity.
Which required more energy; an open or closed circulatory system?
Closed requires more energy.
Which side of the heart sends blood to the pulmonary circuit?
which side of the heart sends blood out to the whole body in the systemic circuit
What initiates each heart beat to pump blood around the body and acts as the pacemaker
The SA node in the right atrium
When blood leaves the right ventricle, it follow through which valve?
The pulminary semilunar valve
Which heart chambers would expect to have the thickest myocardium?
The left ventricle because it is the major pumping chamber of the heart
The lining on the inner wall of the heart
consists of the heart muscle cells that make up the middle layer and the bulk of the heart wall
The OUTER layer of heart cells.
What are the 4 chambers of the heart
Right atria, right ventricle, left atria, left ventricle
Which heart chamber initially receives blood from the systemic circuit?
branch from the aorta and surround the outer surface of the heart like a crown
All chambers of heart relaxes and fills with blood
Which contracts first the right or left atria
Both atria contract at the same time! forcing blood through the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles
What is the cardiac cycle
cardiac cycle is the coordination of the filling and emptying of the heart of blood by electrical signals that cause the heart muscles to contract and relax.
Atria systole, ventricle diastole
Atria contracts pushing blood into ventricles
Atria diastole, ventricle systole
After atria relaxes, ventricle contracts pushing blood out of the heart.
When listening to a heart beat what produces the "lup" sound?
Closing of the atrioventricular valves produces a monosyllabic
When listening to a heart beat what produces the "dup" sound?
Closing of the semilunar valves produces a monosyllabic
Cardiac muscle cells that make up the heart. Are distinctive muscle cells that are striated like skeletal muscle but pump rhythmically and involuntarily like smooth muscle; they are connected by intercalated disks exclusive to cardiac muscle
a recording of the electrical impulses of the cardiac muscle.
The heart's internal pacemaker beats by:
the excitation of cardiac muscle cells that originate in the sinoatrial node
Where do arteries take blood?
AWAY from your heart
are narrow-diameter tubes that can fit red blood cells through in single file and are the sites for the exchange of nutrients, waste, and oxygen with tissues at the cellular level.
Where do veins take blood?
TO the heart
How do arteries differ from veins?
-The arteries have thicker smooth muscle and connective tissue than the veins to accommodate the higher pressure and speed of freshly pumped blood. The veins are thinner walled as the pressure and rate of flow are much lower.
- The difference between veins and arteries is the direction of blood flow (out of the heart through arteries, returning to the heart through veins).
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of
Blood pressure (BP)
is the pressure exerted by blood on the walls of a blood vessel that helps to push blood through the body.
Systolic blood pressure
measures the amount of pressure that blood exerts on vessels while the heart is beating. The optimal systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg
Diastolic blood pressure measures
the pressure in the vessels between heartbeats. The optimal diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg
High blood pressure would be a result of
A high cardiac output and high peripheral resistance
the volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute as a product of heart rate multiplied by stroke volume
resistance of the artery and blood vessel walls to the pressure placed on them by the force of the heart pumping
What is another name for hormones?
Recommended textbook explanations
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology (High School Edition)
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Body Structures and Functions
Ann Senisi Scott, Elizabeth Fong
Sets found in the same folder
BIOS 1030 Exam 2
Ohio University bios 1030 Exam 2
Sets with similar terms
Ch. 42 (Pharm) Intro to Cardiovascular Sys
Physical Education Unit One Exam Notes
Bio Topic D.4 The Heart
HBS unit 4.3 and 4.3
Other sets by this creator
MKT 2020 Ohio University Exam 1
Marketing 2020 exam 1 Ohio University
Health 3350 Exam 1
History of Western Civilization to 1500: Exam 2 -…