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Terms in this set (91)
The process of drug movement throughout the body that is necessary to achieve drug action
For processes of pharmacokinetics
3) metabolism (biotransformation)
4) excretion ( elimination)
The movement of the drug into the bloodstream after administration
The process of a drug in solid form disintegrating into smaller particles and combinding with a liquid to form a solution in order to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream
Fillers and inert substances used in drug preparation to allow the drug to take on a particular size and shape and to enhance drug dissolution
The breakdown of an oral drug into smaller particles
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell. Occurs through diffusion and facilitated diffusion.
Movement across the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
Movement across the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to one of the lower concentration using a carrier protein
Movement across the cell membrane from an area of low concentration to one of high concentration using energy with carriers such as enzymes are proteins.
The process by which cells carry a molecule across their membrane by engulfing the molecules particles in a vesical
the process in which the drug passes to the liver first. This reduces the amount of active drug available to exert a pharmalogical effect.
The percentage of administrative drug available for activity
What factors affect absorption?
Blood flow, pain, stress, hunger, fasting, food, and pH
What factors alter bioavailability?
Drug form, route of administration, gastric mucosa and motility, administration with food and other drugs, and changes in liver metabolisation caused by liver dysfunction or inadequate hepatic bloodflow.
The movement of the drug from the circulation to the body tissue period drug distribution is influenced by the rate of bloodflow to the tissue, the drugs affinity to the tissue, and protein binding
What are protein binding?
Two highly protein-bound drugs administered together and low plasma protein levels,
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
Blood vessels in the brain that have a special endthelial lining where the cells are pressed tightly together (tight junctions). This protects the brain from foreign substances, Including about 98% of the drugs on the market
The process by which the body chemically changes drugs into a form that can be excreted
The time it takes for the amount of drug in the body to reduce by half
What factors affect the half life of a drug?
The amount of drug administered, the amount of drug remaining in the body from previous doses, metabolism, and elimination
When the amount of a drug being administered is the same as the amount of drug being eliminated
Excretion ( elimination)
Where does excretion take place?
Mainly in the kidneys, but it also takes place through bile, the lungs, saliva, sweat, and breast milk
What type of drugs do the kidneys filter?
In a healthy kidney, the kidneys filter free drugs water-soluble drugs and drugs that are unchanged
What conditions affect drug excretion?
Prerenal (dehydration and hemorrage), intrarenal (glomerulonephritis and CKD), and postrenal (prostatic hypertrophy, stones, and neurogenic bladder)
What are some common tests used to determine renal function?
Creatnine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
What is creatinine?
A metabolic byproducts of muscle that is excreted by the kidneys
What is blood urea nitrogen?
The metabolic breakdown product of protein metabolism
The study of the effects of drugs on the body
A drugs effect that is the desirable response
A drug effect that may be desirable or undesirable
The bodys physiologic response to changes in drug concentration at the site of action
The amount of drug needed to elicit a specific physiologic response to a drug
The point at which increasing a drugs dosage no longer increases the desired therapeutic response
Therapeutic index (TI)
The relationship between the therapeutic dose of the drug (ED50) and the toxic dose of the drug (TD50)
Therapeutic dose ( ED50)
The dose of a drug that produces a therapeutic response in 50% of the population
Toxic dose (TD50)
The dose of the drug that produces a toxic response and 50% of the population
The time it takes for a drug to reach the minimum effect concentration (MEC) after Administration
When a drug reaches its highest concentration in the blood
Duration of action
The length of time the drug exerts a therapeutic effect
Peak drug level
The highest plasma concentration of a drug at a specific time. This is an indication of the rate of a drugs absorption. A blood sample should be drawn at the approximate peak time based on the route of administration
Peak time of oral medication?
Usually 2 to 3 hours after drug administration
Peak time of intravenous medication?
Usually 30 to 60 minutes after the infusion is complete
Peaktime of intramuscularly medication?
Usually 2 to 4 hours after injection
Trough drug level
The lowest plasma concentration of a drug. it measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated. A blood test is done prior to the next dose of drug regardless of the route of administration
Cell membrane-embedded enzymes, ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors systems, and transcription factors
The site and the receptor at which drugs bind
Cell membrane-embedded enzymes
The ligand-binding domain for drug binding is on the cell surface. The drug activates the enzyme inside the cell, and the receptor is initiated
The channel crosses the cell membrane. when the channel opens, Ions flow into and out of the cell. This primarily affects sodium and calcium ions
G protein-coupled receptors systems
Consists of three components: the receptor, the G protein that binds with guanosine triphosphate (GTP), and the effector, which is either an enzyme or an ion channel. A drug activates a receptor, a receptor activates a G protein, and the G-protein creates an effect.
Found in the cell nucleus on DNA, not on the surface. Activation of receptors through transcription factors regulates protein synthesis and is prolonged.
Drugs that activate receptors and produce a desired response
Drugs that attach but do you not elicit a response and block receptor activation. Blocking receptor activation either increases or decreases cellular action, depending on the endogenous action of the chemical messenger that is blocked
Drugs that affect multiple receptor sites
Drugs that affect multiple receptors
What are the mechanisms of drug action?
Stimulation, depression, irritation, replacement, cytotoxic action, ante microbial action, and modification of immune status
Drugs that enhance intrinsic activity (e.g. adrenergic drugs that increase heart rate, sweating, respiratory rate during fight or flight response)
Drugs that decrease neural activity and bodily functions (e.g., barbiturates and opioids)
Drugs that have noxious affects (astringents)
Drugs that replace essential body compounds (example; insulin, thyroid drugs, and hormone replacement)
Drugs that selectively kill invading parasites or cancers
Drugs that prevent, inhibit, or kill infectious organisms
Immune status modifying drugs
Drugs that mollifier, enhance, or depress the immune system (example: methotrexate)
Secondary effects of drug therapy. Chronic illness, age, weight, gender, and ethnicity all play a role in drug side effects.
Adverse drug reactions (ADR)
Unintentional, unexpected reactions to drug therapy that occur at normal drug dosages that the reactions may be mild to severe and induced anaphylaxis. adverse drug reaction is are always underdesirable and must be reported and documented because they represent variances from planned therapy.
When drug levels exceed the therapeutic range; toxicity me occur secondary to overdose or drug accumulation
The study of genetic factors that influence an individual's response to a specific drug
The study of how genetics play a role in a person's response to drugs
Complete genetic material present and a cell
The complete genetic constitution of an individual as determined by the specific combination and location of the jeans on the chromosomes
An environmentally induced, non-hereditary variation in an organism, closely resembling a genetically determined trait
The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism as determined by both genetic make up and environmental influences
The occurrence of different forms, stages, or types in individuals independent of sexual variations
A decreased responsiveness to a drug over the course of therapy; an individual with drug tolerance requires a higher dosage of drugs to achieve the same therapeutic response
An acute, rapid decrease in response to a drug; it may occur after the first dose or after several doses
A drug response not attributed to the chemical properties of the drug
An altered or modified action or effect of a drug as a result of interaction with one or multiple drugs
Changes that occur in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and exertion of one or more drugs
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)
Checking serum drug levels
Reactions that result in additive, synergetic, or antagonistic and effects
Went to drugs are administered and combination, and the response is increased beyond what either could produce alone
The clinical effect of two drugs given together is substantially greater than that of either drug alone
When two drugs are administered together, one drug reduces or blocks the effects of the other
Drug induced photosensitivity
A drug reaction that causes the skin to react to exposure to sunlight
When a drug undergoes activation in the skin by ultraviolet light to a compound that is more allergenic than the parent compound
A photosensitive drug undergoes photochemical reactions within the skin to cause damage
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