28 terms

Cell Parts Quiz

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Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
- found in both plant and animal cells
- is a double layer of phospholipids (lipid bilayer) with a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
- seperates cell from the outside, controls what enters or leaves the cell, recognizes signals from other cells which allows communication between cells.
Mitochondria
- found in both plant and animal cells
- membrane bound organelle
- power center of the cell, provides energy to move, contract, and produce secretary vesicles
- makes energy from sugar and oxygen, site of cellular respiration
- Sugar + o2 = ATP
Lysosome
- found in animal cells
- digest food; contains hydrolytic enzymes necessary for digestion. They are released into the vacuole to kill and digest bacteria
- the golgi makes the lysosomes
- clean up and recycle, digest broken organelles structures
- made of out membrane sac out of digestive enzymes
Golgi Apparatus/Body
- found in both plant and animal cells
- finishes, sorts, labels, and ships proteins. They ship proteins in vesicles.
- Produces lysosomes and secretary vesicles.
- membrane-sac structure.
Ctyoplasm
- found in both plant and animal cells
- consists of cytosol plus the cell structure suspended in it (with the organelles)
- Jelly + Organelles
Cytosol
- found in both plant and animal cells
- "soup" within the cell organelles, cell metabolism occurs here, it is full of proteins that control cell metabolism, mostly water
- Jelly like Material holding the organelles in place
Centriole
- found in animal cells
- help coordinate cell division
- Structure is a ring of 9 fused groups of 3 microtubules. There are 3 microtubules in each group. It has a 9 + O Structure.
Centrosome
- found in animal cells
- helps coordinate cell division and organize the microtubules.
- 2 Centrioles are perpendicular to each other to make one centrosome.
Chromatin
- found in both plant and animal cells
- DNA form in NON-DIVIDING cells, unwound, and NOT tightly packed.
Chromosome
- found in both plant and animal cells
- DNA form in DIVIDING cells, very tightly packed
Nucleus
- found in both plant and animal cells
- enclosed in a double membrane
- communicates with the surrounding cytosol.
- the DNA is responsible for giving the cells unique characteristics
- stores and protects DNA, largest organelle
Nucleolus
- found in both plant and animal cells
- located in the nucleus
- produces ribosomes which move out of the nucleus to the Rough ER
Nuclear Envelope
- found in both plant and animal cells
- surrounds the nucleus and has pores which allow molecules to move in and out of the nucleus, sometimes called the nuclear membrane
Vacuole (storage)
- found in both plant and animal cells
- membrane bound sac
- plants have a large central vacuole that stores water, wastes, pigments, toxins, helps structural support.
Vacuole (transport/secretary)
- found in both plant and animal cells
- vesicles (moving materials around the cell)
- Cell secretions are packaged in the secretary vesicles at the golgi apparatus which are then transported to the cell surface for release.
Cell Wall
- found in plant cells
- protects the cell from drying out, provides structural support, prevents cell from expanding or contracting too much as water varies in the environment.
- found outside the cell membrane, made from cellulose
Chloroplast
- found in plant cells
- makes energy from sunlight using photosynthesis
- Has a double membrane and its own DNA
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
- found in both plant and animal cells
- no ribosomes attached
- makes membranes (phospholipids), synthesizes lipids (certain kinds of steroids and hormones), stores calcium
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- found in both plant and animal cells
- ribosomes are attached
- works/synthesizes proteins and folds them into secondary or tertiary structure
- organelle is a maze-like structure.
Ribosomes (free and bound)
- found in both plant and animal cells
- some lay free in the cytoplasm and others are attached to the Rough ER
- they are made in the nucleolus
- functions as protein factories, reads instructions to build proteins from DNA (primary protein structure), specifically bonds amino acids which makes primary protein structure
- large and small subunits.
Flagella
- extensions of the cell membrane
- found in animal cells
- long, whiplike tail extensions of the cell membrane which propels or moves the cell
- Sperm is the only human cell with bacteria
Cilia
- extensions of the cell membrane
- found in animal cells
- tiny, hairlike extensions of the cell membrane which help the cell take in food, move, and in humans it filters dust and toxins.
Cytoskeleton
- found in both plant and animal cells
- General Function: reinforces the cell shape, functions in cell movement, components made of proteins
- Microfilaments: maintains the cell shape, muscle contraction, and cell division
- Intermediate Filaments: maintains the cell shape, anchorage of the nucleus
- Microtubules: hollow soft maintains the cell shape, aids in organelle movements and cell movements, and chromosome movement during cell division.
Plasmodesmata
- type of cell surface
- found in plant cells
- holes in the cell wall
- membrane linked channels that join plant cells together and allow molecules to pass from cell to cell (transport and communication)
Tight Junctions
- type of cell surface
- found in animal cells
- holds the cell together, two membranes bond into one, function is to block transport and limit permeability.
Glycocalyx
- type of cell surface
- found in animal cells
- made of carbohydrates, strengthens cell surface, helps glue animal cells together, helps in cell recognition
Desmosomes
- type of cell surface
- found in animal cells
- button-like junction that rivets/binds cells together into strong sheets but permits transport. Also functions as anchors for fiber in the cytoskeleton
Gap Junctions
- type of cell surface
- found in animal cells
- analogous (similar) to plasmodesmata in plant cells. They directly connect the cytoplasm of 2 cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells.