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111 terms

endocrine system

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endocrine system
The second major controlling system of the body that acts with the nervous system. It employs more slowly acting chemical messengers into the blood to be transported throughout the body.
hormones
alter cellular activity, increase or decrease normal process, do not stimulate processes.
how hormones work
target organ thru out body have special hormone specific sensors, circulating in bloodstream bind with their specific sensor on targe organ
after hormone binds with target area
affects the cell in 1 of 3 ways, changes the selective permaeability of target cell membrane, activates or deactivates enzymes that are present, stimulates DNA to produces instructions for making particular enzymes
exocrine
the type of gland who secrete products into ducts that empty onto surface of coverings or lining epithelium
pituitary gland
An endocrine gland at the base of the hypothalamus; consists of a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), which stores and releases two hormones produced by the hypothalamus, and an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), which produces and secretes many hormones that regulate diverse body functions. Also called hypophysis gland and master gland
anterior pituitary
...also known as Adenohypophsis, made up by Glandular Tissue, all of its hormone are protein hormones
STH
somatotropin hormone;hormone that stimulates growth of long bones and skeletal muscle and converts protein to glucose, Also known as Growth hormone(GH), metabloic from anterrior pituitary
Hyposecretion of STH or GH
children= dwarfism( normal body proportions but minature)
Hypersecretion of STH or GH
children= gigantism (8-9 feet tall)
adults= acromegaly (enlargement and thickening of bones in hands, feet, & face)
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex regulates the production of cortisol(steriod hormone) from anterior pituitary
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
stimulates thyroid gland to increase secretions of thyroid hormones(thyrotropin) controls the growht of thyroid gland from anterior pituitary
PRL or LTH Prolactin or Lactogenic Horomone
promotes breast tissue growth, stimulation and maintence of lactation(milk in breasts) prolactin secretion stimulated by baby sucking/feeding from anterior pituitary
FSH or Follicle Stimulating Hormone
stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and estrogen secretion
stimulates sperm development in testes
hyposecretion=lack of sexual development, sterillity from anterior pituitary
LH Luteinzing and ICSH Interestitial Cell Stimulating Hormone
triggers ovulation & secetion of progesterone and some estrogen
triggers testorsterone secretion from anterior pituitary
MSH Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
regulates the pigment of skin from anterior pituitary
Gonadotropic Hormones
FSH= follicle stimulating hormone
LH= Luteinizing Hormone
can be stimulated by fertillity drugs which can results in multple births
Releasing Factor
produced by hyothalamus
stimulates anterior pituitary to
posterior gland also called
neurohypophsis
cause of type 2 diabtes mellitus
decrease in insulin production
insulin
is made by beta cells in pancreas
has opposite effect of glucagon
decrease the blood glucose level
T4 to be produced diet must contain dufficeitn amount
iodine
exocrine glands do not
stimulate redceptors in target cells
thyroid gland produces
T3, T4, and calcitonin
endocrine gland
gland releases its secretion into blood
target organ
organ with a receptor for specific hormone
exocrine gland
type of gland releases secretion into a duct
hormone
chemical released by endocrine gland
releasing factor/hormone
substances produced by hypthalmus affect functioning of anterior pituitary gland
adenophypophysis
part of pituitary gland made of glandular tissue
ACTH
stimulates release of adrenal cortex hormone
glucagon
causes an increase in blood glucose level
insulin
causes drop in blood glucose level
calcitonin
causes reduction in blood calcium level
TSH
stimulates release of thyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone
causes increase in blood calcium level
oxytocin
causes contraction of pregant uterus
thyroxine
stimulates cell metabolism
melatonin
hormone that may assist body regulating internal clock
ADH
hormone released by posterior gland accelerates reabsorption of water from urine, hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus
FSH
hormone stimultes primary ovarian follicle to start growing in women
epinephrine
hormone assists body's fight or flight response
luteinizing hormone
also called ovulating hormone
prolactin
hormoen in women stimulates breasrs to secrete milk
oxytocin
released by posterior pituitary gland
stimulates uterine contraction
uses postive feedback mechanism
gonadtropic hormone
FSH and LH
protein
major hormone in body
target area of ADH
kidneys
decreased FSH level
sterility in both men and women
goiter cause
decrease in iodine level
gonads
testes
gonads exocrine function
produce sperm
gonads edocrine function
produce testosterone
stimulation of testes produce
testosterone by anterior pituitary
placenta
temporary organ
HCG
produced by placenta, human chorionic gonadotropins until birth
corpus luteum
quiets uterus
purpose of reproductive system
survival of human species
sexual identity determined at conception
y = boy x= girl
female gonads
ovaries
male gonads
testes
gametes
sex cells
female=ova male=sperm
cryptorchidism
undesecended testes one or both
peyonie's disease
fibrous tissue develops within penis causes curvature middle or older men
glans penis
enlarged tip covered by foreskin (prepuce0
scotum/scotal sac
houses the testes
penis
delivers sperm to female, carries both sperm and urine
corpora cavernosa
erectile tissue two dorsal columns
corpus sponggiosum
ventral column surrounding urethra allows for erection
external genitalia
scotum and penis
hyposecretion of HCG
miscarriage
gonads 2 steroid hormone
estrogen and progersterone controlled by anterior pituitary gland
progesterone
secreted by corpus luteum, helps menstrual cycle, helps prepare for lactation, quiets urterus during pregnancy
adrenal medulla secretes 2 protein hormone
catecholamin's=epinephrine and norepinepphrine
pineal body or gland
located middle brain, attached roof of 3rd ventricle, exact function unclear, begins to atrophy at 7yrs. then replaced by fibrous tissue
pineal body or gland secrets 2 hormones
melatonin=inhibits reproductive system& in sleep-awake cycle
adrenoglomerulotropin=stimulates adrenal cortex release aldosterone(increases na retention)
thymus
lies mediastinum posterior to sternum between lungs
composed largely of lymphocytes
atrophies during childhood
thymosin
group of several hormones that play important role in development of body's immune system
addison's disease
decrease functioning or production of adrenal cortex hormone
hyposecretion of mineralocorticoids and gluucocortcoids
decrease reabsorption of na and cl in renal tubules
cushing syndrome
excessive productioon of ACTH(adrenocorticotropic hormone)
hypersecretion of glucocorticoids=high B/P, moon face, hyperglycemia, weight gain
androgens
sex hormone, secreted by inner layer of adrenal cortex, weal testosterone, men and women, stimulates women sex drive
MSH
a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that controls the degree of pigmentation in melanocytes
common features endocrine glands
rich vascular supply, endicrine stimulation, negative feedback, hormone an protein/fat molecule
hormonal stimulus
by other hormones
neural stimulus
by nervous system
non-homrmonal chemical stimulation
chemical stimulation 9Ca or Glucose
most glands controlled by
negative fee back system
reverse any deviation from normal back to normal
hormones work
target organs thru body special hormone specific sensors
after hormone is with target area
affects cells in 1 of 3 ways, changes selective permeability target cell membrane, activatives or deactivates enzymes present, stimylates DNA to produce instructions for making particular enzyme
what are exocrine and endocrine made up of
epithelial cells
exocrine glands
have ducts, carry glands secretion to surface or body cavity
endocrine glands
ductless, hormones released intp blood vessels/circulation
posterior pituitary
fo not produce or make hormones
store and release 2 hormones that are made by hypothalamus
2 hormones stored in posterior pituitary
oxytocin(pitocin)
ADH=antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
regulates adrenal glands
regulates production of cortisol (steroid hormone)
TSH thyroid stim. hormone
stimulates thyroid gland to increase secretions of thyroid hormone (thyrotropin)
controls growth of thyroid gland
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion
prevents water from being absorb leading to dehydration
large amount of urine output
low b/p
diabetes insipdus
ADH antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion
abnormal water retention
hypertension
thyroid gland
largest endocrine gland secretes thyroxin (T4) triodothyronine(T3) thyrocalcitonin(calcitonin)
fertilization
fallopian tube
Zygote
product of immediately feertilized ova up til 2 weeks
Embryo
2-8 weeks after fertilization
Fetus
greater than 8 weeks until birth
first stage labor
cervix dilating early 0-3 active 4-7 and transition 8-10
second stage labor
full dilation until birth
third stage labor
borth of baby until placenta delivered
uterine atony
uterus not contracting strong enough during labor to push baby thru birth canal lack of oxytocin or pitocin
glucocorticoid GC
hormone that influnces food metabolism, secreted by adrenal cortex
Graves disease
inherited possible immune system disorder by hyperthyroidism
bulging or protuding eyes
causes hypoglycemia
"Addison disease" too mcuh blood glucose concentration
myxedema
condition caused by deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults
cretinism
dwarfism caused by hyposecretion of the thyroid gland