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237 terms

Exploring Medical Language: Chap14

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periosteum
outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue
compact bone
dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous (spongy) bone
contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
endosteum
membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis
shaft of the long bone
epiphysis
end of each long bone
bone marrow
material found in the cavity of bones
red marrow
thick, blood like material found in flat bones and at the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation
yellow marrow
soft, fatty material material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
maxilla
upper jaw bone
mandible
lower jawbone
vertebral column
made up of bone called vertabrae or vertebra through which the spinal cord runs. the vertebral comlumn prtoects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles
cervical vertebrae
first set of seven bones forming the neck (C1 to C7)
thoracic vertebrae
second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine
lumbar vertebrae
third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine
sacrum
next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones
coccyx
four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone
lamina
part of the vertebral arch
clavicle
collarbone
scapula
shoulder blade
acromion process
extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder
sternum
breastbone
xiphoid process
lower portion of the sternum
humerus
upper arm bone
ulna and radius
lower arm bone
olecranon process
projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow
carpal bones
wrist bones
metacarpal bones
hand bones
phalanges
finger and toe bones
pelvic bone, hip bone
made up of three bones fused together
ischium
lower, rear portion of the pelvis on which one sits
ilium
upper, wing-shaped part on each side of the pelvis
pubis
anterior portion of the pelvic bone
acetabulum
large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
femur
upper leg bone
tibia and fibula
lower leg bones
patella
kneecap
tarsal bones
ankle bones
calcaneus
heel bone
metatarsal bones
foot bones
articular cartilage
smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surface of joints
meniscus
crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
intervertebral disk
cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
pubic symphysis
cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together
synovia
fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities
bursa
fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament
flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
tendon
a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
aponeurosis
strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
Skeletal muscles (striated muscle)
attached to the bones of the skeleton by tendons and make body motions possible
smooth muscle (unstriated muscle)
involuntary muscle found in internal organs
cardiac muscle (myocardium)
forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat
abduction
Movement away from the midline
adduction
movement toward the midline
inversion
turning inward
eversion
turning outward
extension
movement in which a limb is place in a straight position
flexion
movement in which a limb is bent
pronation
movement that turns the palm down
supination
movement that turns the palm up
rotation
turning around its own axis
carp/o
wrist (carpals)(combining form)
clavic/o, clavicul/o
clavicle (2 combining forms)
cost/o
rib (combining form)
crani/o
cranium (skull) (combining form)
femor/o
femur (combining form)
fibul/o
fibula (combining form)
humer/o
humerus (combining form)
ili/o
ilium (combining form)
ischi/o
ischium (combining form)
lumb/o
loin, lumbar region of the spine (combining form)
mandibul/o
mandible (combining form)
maxill/o
maxilla (combining form)
patell/o
patella (combing form)
pelv/i, pelv/o
pelvis, pelvic bone (2 combining forms)
phalang/o
phalanges (combining form)
pub/o
pubis (combining form)
rachi/o
spine, vertebral column (combining form)
radi/o
radius (combining form)
sacr/o (combining form)
sacrum
scapul/o
scapula (combining form)
spondyl/o, vertebr/o
vertebra (2 combining forms)
stern/o
sternum (combining form)
tars/o
tarsals (combing form)
tibi/o
tibia (combining form)
uln/o
ulna
aponeur/o
aponeurosis (combining form)
arthr/o
joint
burs/o
bursa (combining form)
chondr/o
cartilage (combining form)
disk/o
intervertebral disk (combining form)
menisc/o
meniscus (combining vowel)
synovi/o
synovia, synovial membrane (combining form)
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
tendon (3 combining forms)
ankyl/o
crooked, stiff, bent (combining form)
kinesi/o
movement, motion (combing form)
kyph/o
hump (combining form)
lamin/o
lamina (thin flat plate or layer) (combining form)
lord/o
bent forward (combining form)
myel/o
bone marrow (combining form)
my/o, myos/o
muscle (2 combining forms)
oste/o
bone (combining form)
petr/o
stone (combining form)
scoli/o
crooked, curved (combining form)
inter-
between (prefix)
supra-
above (prefix)
sym-, syn-
together, joined (2 prefixes)
-asthenia
weakness (suffix)
-clasia, -clasis, -clast
break (3 suffixes)
-desis
surgical fixation, fusion
-physis
growth (suffix)
-schisis
split, fissure (suffix)
ankylosis
abnormal condition of stiffness
arthritis
inflammation of a joint
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
cranioschisis
fissure in the skull
diskitis
inflammation of an intervertebral disk
fibromyalgia
pain in the fibrous tissue of the muscle
kyphosis
abnormal condition of a hump
lordosis
abnormal condition of bending forward
maxillitis
inflammation of the maxilla
meniscitis
inflammation of the meniscus
myasthenia
muscle weakness
myeloma
tumor of the bone marrow
osteitis
inflammation of the bone
osteoarthritis
inflammation of the bone and joint
osteochondritis
inflammation of the bone and cartilage
osteofibroma
tumor of the bone and fibrous tissue
osteomalacia
softening of bones
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
osteopenia
abnormal reduction of bone mass
osteopetrosis
abnormal condition of stonelike bones
osteosarcoma
malignant tumor of the bone
polymyositis
inflammation of many muscles
rachischisis
fissure of the vertebral column
scoliosis
abnormal (lateral) curve (of the spine)
spondylarthritis
inflammation of the vertebral joints
spondylosis
abnormal condition of the vertabra
synoviosarcoma
malignant tumor of the synovial membrane
tendinitis
inflammation of the tendon
tenosynovitis
inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane
bunion
abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve
colles fracture
a type of wrist fracture; the fracture is at the lower end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward
exostosis
abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (also called spur)
fracture (fx)
broken bone
gout
disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (trophi) to be deposited in the joints, producing arthritis
herniated disk
rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots; also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk, or herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)
lyme disease
an infection caused by a bacteria carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick; symptoms vary but may include a rash at the site of the bite and flulike symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and fatigue
muscular dystrophy (MD)
group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness
myasthenia gravis (MG)
chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell.
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bone density occurring predominantly in postmenopausal women, which can lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
a chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body
spinal stenosis
narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots; the condition is either congenital or due to spinal degeneration
spondylolisthesis
Forward slipping of one vertebra over another
aponeurorrhaphy
suture of an aponeurosis
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid
arthroclasia
(surgical) breaking of a (stiff) joint
arthrodesis
surgical fixation of a joint
arthroplasty
surgical repair of a joint
bursectomy
excision of a bursa
carpectomy
excision of a carpal bone
chondrectomy
excision of a cartilage
chondroplasty
surgical repair of cartilage
costectomy
excision of a rib
cranioplasty
surgical repair of the skull
craniotomy
incision of the skull
diskectomy
excision of an intervertebral disk
laminectomy
excision of a lamina
maxillectomy
excision of the maxilla
meniscectomy
excision of the meniscus
myorrhaphy
suture of a muscle
ostectomy
excision of bone
osteoclasis
(surgical) breaking of a bone (to correct a deformity)
patellectomy
excision of the patella
phalangectomy
excision of a finger or toe bone
rachiotomy
incision of the vertebral column
spondylosyndesis
fusion together of the vertebrae
synovectomy
excision of the synovial membrane
tarsectomy
excision of one or more tarsal bones
tenorraphy
suture of a tendon
vertebroplasty
surgical repair of a vertebra
arthrography
radiographic imaging of a joint (with contrast media)
arthroscopy
visual examination of a joint
electromyogram (EMG)
record of the (intrinsic) electrical activity in a skeletal muscle
arthralgia
pain in the joint
atrophy
without development (wasting)
bradykinesia
slow movement
carpal
pertaining to the wrist
cranial
pertaining to the cranium
dyskinesia
difficult movement
dystrophy
abnormal development
femoral
pertaining to the femur
humeral
pertaining to the humerus
hyperkinesia
excessive movement
hypertrophy
excessive development
iliofemoral
pertaining to the ilium and femur
intercostal
pertaining to between the ribs
intervertebral
pertaining to between the vertebrae
intracranial
pertaining to within the cranium
ischiofibular
pertaining to the ischium and fibula
ischiopubic
pertaining to the ischium and pubis
lumbar
pertaining to the loins
lumbocostal
pertaining to the loins and the ribs
lumbosacral
pertaining to the lumbar region and the sacrum
osteoblast
developing bone
osteocyte
bone cell
osteonecrosis
abnormal death of bone
pelvic
pertaining to the pelvis
pelvisacral
pertaining to the sacrum and pelvis
pubic
pertaining to the pubis
pubofemoral
pertaining to the pubis and the femur
sacral
pertaining to the sacrum
sternoclavicular
pertaining to the sternum and clavicle
sternoid
resembling the sternum
subcostal
pertaining to below the rib
submandibular
pertaining to below the mandible
submaxillary
pertaining to below the maxilla
subscapular
pertaining to below the scapula
substernal
pertaining to below the sternum
suprapatellar
pertaining to above the patella
suprascapular
pertaining to above the scapula
symphysis
growing together
vertebrocostal
pertaining to the vertebrae and ribs
podiatrist
specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot (P)
chiropractic
system of therapy that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column
chiropractor
specialist in chiropractic
crepitus
the crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each other or grating caused by the rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint; also called crepitation
orthopedics
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedist
physician who specializes in orthopedics
orthotics
making and fitting of orthopedic appliances
orthotist
person who specializes in orthotics
osteopath
physician who specializes in osteopathy
osteopathy
system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation between body organs and the musculoskeletal system
prosthesis
an artificial substitute for a missing body part
dexa
Bone density exam