Biology 121 Chapter 8
Terms in this set (39)
Is an emergent property of life that arises from olderly interactions between molecules
Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds.
The study of how energy flows through living organisms
The ability to do work or cause change
Moving objects can perfrom work impacting motion to other matter
Is kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
Thermal energy in transfer object to another
It is energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
Used by biologists to refer to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
The study of energy transformations that occur on a collection of matter
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy of the universe is constant: Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed
A measue of molecular disorder, of randomness
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Is the portion of a system's energy that can preform work when temperature and pressure are uniform through the system, as in living cell
Proceeds with a net release of free energy
Objects move spontaneously from a higher altitude to a lower one
In a cell, a glucose molecule is broken down into simpler molecules
Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.
The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.
Contains the sugar ribose, with the nitrogenous base adenine and chain of three phosphate groups(the triphosphate group) bounded to it
The recipient with the phosphate group covalently bonded to it
A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Energy required to contort the reactant molecules so the bonds can break
A process which a catalyst selectively speeds up a reaction without itself being consumed
Reactant an enzyme acts on is referred to as the enzyme's
When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:
Typically a pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme where catalysis occurs
Brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction.
Many enzymes require nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity, often for chemical processes like electron transfers that cannot easily be carried out by the amino acids in proteins
If the cofactor is an organic molecule.
Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.
Do not directly compete with the substrate to bind to the enzyme at the active site
The binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
It amplifies the response of enzymes to substrates.
A metabolic pathway is halted by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway
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