Behavioral formality is a workplace atmosphere characterized by routine and regimen,
specific rules about how to behave, and impersonal detachment. Behavioral informality is a workplace atmosphere characterized by spontaneity, casualness, and interpersonal familiarity. You can tell whether a workplace is formal or informal by the following:
•Language usage:Formal environments use formal word choices and grammatically correct phrasing; informal environments use colloquial and slang expressions and first names.
•Conversational turn taking and topic selection:In formal environments, turn taking is well regulated with few interruptions, while in informal environments, turn taking may have many interruptions, and joking is common.
•Emotional and proxemic communication:In formal environments, people have serious facial expressions and don't touch each other, while in informal environments, people have greater emotional expression and have small interpersonal distance.
•Physical and contextual cues:In formal environments, dress is conservative and there is a hushed atmosphere, while in informal environments, people dress informally and use an asymmetric arrangement of furniture, etc.
Because modular organizations outsource all non-core activities to other businesses, they are less expensive to run than traditional companies. However, modular organizations require extremely close relationships with suppliers, may result in a loss of control, and could create new competitors if the wrong business activities are outsourced. Virtual organizations participate in a network in which they share skills, costs, capabilities, markets, and customers. As customer problems, products, or services change, the combination of virtual organizations that work together changes. Virtual organizations can reduce costs, respond quickly, and (if they can successfully coordinate their efforts) produce outstanding products and service. The stages of team development are listed below.
Forming:The first stage of team development in which team members meet each other, form initial impressions, and begin to establish team norms
Storming:The second stage of team development, characterized by conflict and disagreement, in which team members disagree over what the team should do and how it should do it
Norming:The third stage of team development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop
Performing: The fourth and final stage of team development, in which performance improves because the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team
Teams do not necessarily stay together forever once they reach the performing stage. The stages teams go through as they break up reflect a reversal through the stages they passed through to reach performance level.
De-norming: A reversal of the norming stage, in which team performance begins to decline as the size, scope, goal, or members of the team change
De-storming: A reversal of the storming phase, in which the team's comfort level decreases, team cohesion weakens, and angry emotions and conflict may flare
De-forming:A reversal of the forming stage, in which team members position themselves to control pieces of the team, avoid each other, and isolate themselves from team leaders
Managers need to consider whether an individual has a preference for teamwork, whether the team level is high enough, and how diverse the team is. An individual with a preference for teamwork shows a strong preference for working interdependently, rather than independently. As such, that person can be considered collectivist and, thus, show good potential for teamwork. Individuals who are highly "individualistic" may not be as effective on teams.
Managers also need to consider team level. That is, managers need to determine the average ability, experience, personality, or other factors of a team. For example, a high level of experience or ability means the team has particularly experienced or skilled members. But if a team has a low level of experience, a manager might want to select an employee with expertise in a certain area to round out the overall skill set of the team.
Finally, managers must consider team diversity when selecting employees for participation on teams. Generally, the more diverse a team is in experience and abilities, the better the performance of the team.
Four things must occur for stretch goals to effectively motivate teams. First, teams must have a high degree of autonomy or control over how they achieve their goals. Second, teams must be empowered with control resources, such as budgets, workspaces, computers, or whatever else they need to do their jobs. Third, teams need structural accommodation. Structural accommodation means giving teams the ability to change organizational structures, policies, and practices if doing so helps them meet their stretch goals.
Teams no longer have to go through the frustratingly slow process of multilevel reviews and sign-offs to get management approval before making changes. Once granted bureaucratic immunity, teams are immune from the influence of various organizational groups and are accountable only to top management. Therefore, teams can act quickly and even experiment with little fear of failure.
Compensating teams correctly is very difficult. For instance, one survey found that only 37 percent of companies were satisfied with their team compensation plans, and even fewer (just 10 percent) reported being "very positive." One of the problems is that most people—and most organizations—believe that people should be paid for how well they do. When employees are first assigned to teams and realize their compensation depends not on them alone, but on a whole group of people, they really balk.
Companies generally use one of three types of systems to compensate employees for work done in teams: skill-based pay, which pays employees for learning additional skills or knowledge; gain sharing, in which companies share the financial value of performance gains, such as productivity, cost savings, or quality, with their workers; and non-financial rewards such as vacations, plaques, or inexpensive gifts.
For internal recruiting, managers can use job posting and career path management. Job posting is a procedure for advertising job openings within the company to existing employees. A career path is a planned sequence of jobs through which employees may advance within an organization.
For external recruiting, managers can use advertising (in newspapers, magazines, direct mail, radio, or even T.V.), employee referrals, walk-ins, outside organizations (universities, technical/trade schools, professional societies), employment services (state or private employment agencies, temp agencies, and professional search firms), special events (such as career or job fairs), and Internet job sites (such as Monster.com).
Job analysis is a helpful recruiting tool. Job analysis is a purposeful, systematic process for
collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job. A job analysis contains four kinds of information:
(i) work activities: what workers do and how, when, and why they do it;
(ii) tools and equipment used on the job;
(iii) context in which the job is performed; and
(iv) personnel requirements for performing the job
Before training employees, managers must conduct a needs assessment, which involves identifying and prioritizing the learning needs ofemployees. Then managers should choose a training method by considering a number of factors, such as the number of people to be trained, the cost of training, and the objectives of the training. Training objectives and matching methods are as follows:
11. To impart information to knowledge to trainees, use films and videos, lectures, and planned readings.
12. To develop analytical and problem-solving skills, use case studies, group discussions, coaching and mentoring.
13. To change job behaviors, use on-the-job training, role-playing, simulations and games, and vestibule training.
14. To meet more than one of these objectives, combine one of the previous methods with computer-based training.
Top managers understand the importance of formal performance feedback to the growth and development of their workforce. The traditional method for evaluating employee performance is the appraisal, but workers often have strong doubts about the accuracy and validity of their appraisals.Studies show that managers are prone to three kinds of rating errors: central tendency, halo, and leniency error.
One way to minimize rating errors is to use better appraisal measures, such as objective measures of performance. Objective performance measures are measures of performance that are easily and directly counted or quantified. Common objective performance measures include output, scrap, waste, sales, customer complaints, or rejection rates.
When a job does not allow for objective measurement, managers can use behavioral observation scales. Behavioral observation scales (BOSs) ask raters to rate the frequency with which workers perform specific behaviors representative of the job dimensions that are critical to successful job performance. Managers can also implement a 360-degree feedback system in which coworkers at multiple levels of the company (and even contacts outside the company) give their perspective on an employee's job performance. Finally,
management can directly train performance raters to minimize errors and more accurately rate the important dimensions of job performance.
In general, most companies try to keep the rate of employee turnover low to reduce recruiting, hiring, training, and replacement costs. Not all kinds of employee turnover are bad for organizations, however. In fact, some turnover can actually be good. For instance, functional turnover is the loss of poor-performing employees who choose to leave the organization. By contrast, dysfunctional turnover, the loss of high performers who choose to leave, is a costly loss to the organization. Employee turnover should be carefully
analyzed to determine whether good or poor performers are choosing to leave the organization. Managers may need to increase salaries and benefits or improve working conditions to keep valuable employees from leaving. If too many poor performers are staying with the company, management can link pay to performance, which has the effect of encouraging dysfunctional turnover.
Surface-level diversity involves differences such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure. Deep-level diversity is differences communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such personality and attitudes, which are learned only through extended interaction with others.
Over time, initial impressions give way to deeper impressions based on behavior and psychological characteristics. These could include personality differences, attitudes, beliefs, and values and are better understood through extended interactions. The actual behavior of people is based on their self-perceptions. Deep-level diversity means getting to know and understand one another better, which can result in less prejudice, discrimination, and conflict in the workplace.
The Big Five dimensions of personality are extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Extraversion is the degree to which someone is active, assertive, gregarious, sociable, talkative, and energized by others. Emotional stability is the degree to which someone is not angry, depressed, anxious, emotional, insecure, and excitable. Agreeableness is the degree to which someone is cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good natured, tolerant, and trusting. Conscientiousness is the degree to which someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, persevering, thorough, and achievement oriented. Finally, openness to experience is the degree to which someone is curious, broad minded, and open to new ideas, things, and experiences; is spontaneous; and has a high tolerance for ambiguity.
Of these five dimensions, conscientiousness is a good predictor of job success. Meta-analysis has shown that people with high levels of conscientiousness are organized, hardworking, and responsible. They are also more likely to be motivated and perform better than coworkers who demonstrate low levels of conscientiousness.
Three main paradigms for managing diversity are discrimination and fairness, access and legitimacy, and learning and effectiveness. The discrimination and fairness paradigm focuses on equal opportunity, fair treatment, recruitment of minorities, and strict compliance with the equal employment opportunity laws. The benefit of this paradigm is that it brings about fairer treatment of employees and increases demographic diversity. The limitation of this paradigm is that its focus of diversity remains on the surface-level diversity dimensions of gender, race, and ethnicity.
The access and legitimacy paradigm focuses on the acceptance and celebration of differences. The benefit of this paradigm is that it establishes a clear business reason for diversity. The limitation of this paradigm is that it focuses only on surface-level diversity.
The learning and effectiveness paradigm focuses on integrating deep-level diversity differences, such as personality, attitudes, beliefs, and values. There are several benefits to this paradigm. First, it values common ground. This paradigm also makes a distinction between individual and group differences, and it is less likely to encounter conflict and divisiveness. Finally, the learning and effectiveness paradigm focuses on bringing different talents and perspectives together. Like the other two paradigms, however, the learning and effectiveness paradigm also has limitations, such as being more difficult to measure and quantify.
The two types of diversity training are awareness training and skills-based diversity training. Companies also manage diversity through diversity audits and diversity pairing and by
having top executives experience what it is like to be in the minority. Awareness training is designed to raise employees' awareness of diversity issues, such as the dimensions discussed in this chapter, and to get employees to challenge underlying assumptions or stereotypes they may have about others. Skills-based diversity training teaches employees the practical skills they need for managing a diverse workforce, such as flexibility and adaptability, negotiation, problem solving, and conflict resolution.
Diversity audits are formal assessments that measure employee and management attitudes, investigate the extent to which people are advantaged or disadvantaged with respect to hiring and promotions, and review companies' diversity-related policies and procedures. In diversity pairing, people of different cultural backgrounds, genders, or races/ethnicities are paired for mentoring. The hope is that stereotypical beliefs and attitudes will change as people get to know each other as individuals.
13th EditionLori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley