181 terms



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Bloom's Taxonomy
are domains that encompass possibilities of learning outcomes to be expected.
Lesson Cycle
focus, explanation, check for understanding, guided practice, closure, independent practice, reteach and extend
5 E Model
Students build from prior knowledge; construct their own understanding
1) engage
2) explore
3) explain
4) extend
5) evaluate
general categories
Cooperative Learning
Marzano; students are responsible for their own learning; work together; develop interpersonal and social skills
Piaget's belief for 3 basic learning processes
1) assimilation
2) accommodation
3) equilibration
Fitting new information into existing mental structures (schema)
Modifying current schema or creating new schema in order to take the new data or information into account
Process of reaching equilibrium
When encountering new data or information, you experience disequilibrium, a cognitive conflict, until you can either assimilate or accommodate it and achieve equilibrium
Piaget's Three Types of Knowledge
Physical Knowledge
Logical-mathematical Knowledge
Social Knowledge
Physical Knowledge
Developed from physical interaction with objects
Logical-Mathematical Knowledge
Developed from recognizing logical relationships between objects and ideas
Social Knowledge
Developed through custom or social convention
Vigotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
learning can be understood without context; self-regulation; private speech; ZPD; scaffolding
solve problems without help
Private Speech
guide themselves as they work through a problem or a task
assistance from an adult or capable peer
support or assistance to solve problems
1) enactive mode
2) iconic mode
3) symbolic mode
Enactive Mode
Children primarily learn through interaction with objects in their environment (up to age 6)
Iconic Mode
Learn through the use of images to convey concepts (ages 6-11)
Symbolic Mode
Learn using symbols and words to represent concepts (ages 11 and above)
Heteronomous Morality Stage (Piaget's 1st stage of moral development)
Children see rules as unbreakable; obey rules for fear of punishment
Autonomous Morality Stage (Piaget's 2nd stage of moral development)
Children develop autonomy and are willing to challenge rules
should be avoided; jeopardizes learning environment
Positive Punishment
GIVING an undesirable consequences to deter undesirable behavior
(ex: extra work)
Negative Punishment
TAKING AWAY a desirable reward
(ex: free time)
A pleasant consequence that follows a behavior
Negative Reinforcement
Removal from a situation perceived by the student to be unpleasant
(ex: a night off from homework)
Uses (+) reinforcement to reach a desired learning goal or behavior
1) learner centered approach
2) emphasizes teaching for understanding
3) students construct knowledge by making connections between present learning experiences and the existing knowledge they already possess
4) must see the whole picture and then break it down (whole to parts approach)
5) collaborative strategies
Effective Classroom Management
- evidence based instruction

1) what they saw
2) how they feel about it
3) how it affects others
4) what needs to be done
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
requires teacher to make modifications and accommodations
changes in HOW student accesses information
changes in WHAT a student is expected to learn
{B.F. Skinner} Learning theory based on using immediate consequences to either weaken or strengthen a learner's observable response
Extrinsic Reinforcement
Rewards that come from external sources
Intrinsic Reinforcement
an internalized sense of satisfaction when one performs well, even when no one else is present
process of weakening and eventually eliminating
GUIDELINES for routines
specify behavior EXPECTATIONS
Consequences should be....
-logical (related to behavior violation)
-proportional (matched to the severity of the infraction)

* stop and redirect
Office Discipline Referral (ODR)
a written description of an incident that is sent to the administration
create and sustain positive, safe, and productive learning environments in school (3 tiers)

1) universal
2) small group
3) individual
Behavior Implementation Plan (BIP)
individualized assessment based intervention strategies
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Levels
1) Recall
2) Basic Application of Concepts and Skills
3) Strategic Thinking and Complex Reasoning
4) Extended Thinking and Complex Reasoning
Five Attributes of Cooperative Learning
1) Positive Interdependence
2) Individual Accountability
3) Group Processing of Social Skills
4) Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction
5) Effective Interpersonal Interaction
Parten's 5 Progressive Stages of Play
1) Onlooker Play
2) Solitary Play
3) Parallel Play
4) Associative Play
5) Cooperative Play
Onlooker Play
a child watches another child play, but does not join in
Solitary Play
a child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby
Parallel Play
play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influence.
Associative Play
children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
Cooperative Play
children play as a group with more complex social interaction
The change in performance or behavior that results from an intervention
Data-based decision-making model that enables educators to match instruction and/or intervention to learners' areas of specific need
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Instructional Methods
discovery learning
direct instruction
lecture method
constructive instruction
inquiry based learning
project based learning
problem based learning
thematic learning
reciprocal learning
role playing
differentiated instruction
individuated instruction
independent student centers
peer tutoring
direct instruction
teacher led but student based
first= instructions
second= monitoring and guidance of student practice
lesson plans= simple to more complex
goal= fostering independent learning
lecture method
10- 15 minutes (advised time)
constructivist instruction
learning is an active process (5 E Model)
reciprocal teaching (Palincsar & Brown)
designed to increase students' reading comprehension
learning experience designed to reflect reality
role playing
students act out characters or situations
differentiated instruction
practice of matching instruction to students' needs.
(implemented through MTSS)
Marzano's High Yield Instructional Strategies
pg 75
causes students assign to their success or failures:
1) ability
2) effort
3) task difficulty
4) luck
locus of control
reflects the degree to which students feel they have power over forces in their lives
internal locus of control
they believe the events experienced are under their control. attribute success to their own effort or ability
external locus of control
they believe they are under the control go other people or forces outside themselves
Learning that consists of witnessing another person's actions, retaining information on that behavior, and re-enacting what was learned; powerful way to communicate; provides structure to assignments
divergent questions
open ended questions
convergent questions
close ended questions
the technique of eliciting more information from students, often for the purpose of clarifying students' contributions or to justify their answers; use to clarify students' understanding
skillful questioning (p. 85)
1) knowledge
2) comprehension
3) application
4) analysis
5) synthesis
6) evaluation
remembering, memorization, recalling; who, what, when where, how, find, label, define, list, name, etc.
grasping the meaning, interpreting, translating, describing, explaining; summarize, interpret, outline, rephrase
applying information to produce some result, problem solving; apply, construct, select, produce, classify, solve, demonstrate
identifying motives, making inferences, finding evident to support, comparing, breaking into parts; analyze, compare, contrast, simplify, examine, infer, predict
creating something new, making predictions; compile, create, construct, design, develop, intent
stating an opinion
process of thinking about and monitoring one's own thinking.
1) person's awareness
2) person's understanding
3) person's control
metacognition strategies
1) set a purpose for learning (why)
2) plan for learning (what)
3) select learning strategies suited to learning task (how)
4) moniter their own progress
5) make adjustments and modifications
6) assess their own learning
logical reasoning
the higher level thinking processes that are used to make decisions or draw conclusions; inductive reasoning & deductive reasoning
inductive reasoning
drawing conclusions based on one or more examples; trying to identify a pattern; inference
deductive reasoning
process of using an accepted rule to draw a conclusion about an example; accepted truths & generalizations
syllogistic reasoning
conditional reasoning
making a conclusion based on a condition (the if's)
a course of reasoning offered in support of a position
affirming the consequent
example- If the object in my hand is a frog, then the object is green. The object in my hand is green. Therefore it is a frog.
denying the antecedent
example- If Queen Elizabeth is an American citizen, then she is a human being. Queen Elizabeth is not an American citizen. Therefore, Queen Elizabeth is not a human being.
problem solving
1) identify and clarify the problem
2) brainstorm how to solve the problem and devise a plan
3) carry out the plan
4) look back to see whether the problem has been solved
purpose is to promote student learning and development; should be systematic and ongoing; should align with state curriculum and grade level standards; reflect instructional methods; used to differentiate
assessments should be...
reliable, valid, and unbiased
consistency of measurement over time and repeated measurements
has to do with whether the assessment instrument measures what it has to measure
standardized test
has been carefully constructed and field tested so that it has a high degree of reliability and validity
norm referenced test
one that assesses students by comparing their performance to that of a norm group
criterion referenced test
assesses students by comparing their performance to a predetermined level of mastery
(ex- Florida's standardized assessment)
diagnostic, placement, and remediation use
measures of central tendency
mean, median, mode
mode should not...
be used as the only measure of central tendency
measures of variability
used to describe the amount of spread
range & standard deviation
two important measures of variability; greatest score minus the least score in a set of scores
standard deviation (pg 104)
measure of the dispersion of a set of data values about the mean of the data set.
percentile and quartiles
other measures to describe assessment data
pg 104
divide an ordered set of data into four parts; data values at or below first (25%), second (50%), and third quartile (75%)
interquartile range (IQR)
formula= Q3-Q1; contains the center 50% of the data
raw score
the most commonly the total number of correct responses on an assessment; sum of the scorer's ratings assigned to a test-taker's responses
formula= (raw score-mean) / (standard of deviation); distance in standard deviation from the mean of the scores on the assessment
percentile rank
derived score used to rank a student's performance; based on the percentage of scores in the comparison group
derived from percentiles and compare test performance using nine intervals
effect size
expresses in standard deviation the difference between the increased or decreased achievement of an experimental group with that of a control group
formative assessment
screening. diagnostic, progress monitoring, informal classroom assessments, progress reports
summative assessment
takes place at the end of an instructional unit, regular grading period, or school year; outcome assessments and report cards
screening assessment
administered to all students at the BOY, MOY, EOY; measures critical skills and concepts; measures core instructions and effectiveness of interventions
(ex- FLKRS)
diagnostic assessment
usually administered individually to selected students for the purpose of identifying and learning strengths and weaknesses
(ex- DAR: assesses nine key areas of reading)
progress monitoring assessments
dynamic and ongoing assessments used to evaluate students' academic progress for the purpose of making data-based decisions regarding instructions and intervention; should occur routinely
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Oral Reading Fluency
tests for accuracy and fluency in reading
(example of progress monitoring)
triangulate data
using two or more different data sources to corroborate results
EOC (end of course assessment) 3s
tests students in Algebra 1, Geometry, Biology 1, US History and Civics; constitutes 30% of the student's final course grade for the subject
authentic assessment
perfomance assessment / process product assessment; incorporates real life application tasks and enable the teacher to directly assess meaningful and complex educational performances
alternative classroom assessment (authentic assessment methods)
1) instructional embedded assessment/teacher observation 2) portfolio
3) projects
4) checklist
5) conferences and interviews
6) journals and notebooks
7) student self assessment and peer assessment
matching questions should...
use no more than 10 to 12 answer choices
constructed response scoring guide
holistic scale ranging form 0 to 4 points
research based, high yielding instructional strategy; positively impacts student achievement; reasonable time is approximately 10 times a student's grade level in minutes
continuous improvement
engaging in professional learning
schools community professional development act
purpose of professional learning: increase student achievement, enhance classroom instructional strategies, and prepare students for continuing education and the workforce
Florida Professional Development System Evaluation Protocol's (third cycle) four strands
1) planning
2) learning (PLCs)
3) implementing (coaching, mentoring, assistance)
4) evaluating
consists of individual needs assessment, administrator review, and the IPDP standards
must plainly show the relationship of the professional learning to performance data of the teacher's students
FEAPs (Florida Educator Accomplished Practices)
form the foundation of teachers preparation programs, educator certification requirements, and personnel appraisal systems
3 essential principles of FEAPs
1) effective educators creates a culture of high expectations for all students by promoting the importance of education
2) effective educators demonstrate deep and comprehensive knowledge of the subject taught
3) effective educators exemplifies the standards of the profession.
1) instruction design and lesson planning
2) the learning environment
3) instructional delivery and facilitation
4) assessment
5) continuous professional improvement
6) professional responsibility and ethical conduct
IEP team (IDEA)
group of individuals who make decisions about the service and accommodations of modifications provided to a student; must include the parents of the student, at least once regular teacher, at least one special education teacher , a representative of the school, an individual to interpret the evaluation results, and the student; must meet once a year.
IEP meeting
must included a discussion of the least restrictive environment appropriate for the student
EP team
group of individuals who make decisions about the ESE services provided to students identifies as gifted; must meet at least once every 3 years for K5 students through 8th grade; meet once every 4 years for students grade 9 through 12
Section 504 plan
designed to ensure that students with physical or mental disabilities that substantially limit a major life activity are provided with the same opportunity as other students with disabilities to learn at school.
504 team
include persons knowledgable about the child, the meaning of the evaluation data, and the placement options.
CTS team (or PAT, SAT, EPT, TST, SST, IAT)
assembled to collect and review information about a concerned student in order to decide how best to meet student's educational needs.
first: meeting between the student's parents
second: CST is organized if further intervention is needed
ELL (or LEP) Committee
team of individuals who are responsible for overseeing the ESOL program; formed of ESOL teacher(s), home language teacher, an administrator, plus others such as a counselor.
interdisciplinary team (or grade level team)
consists of two or more teachers from different subject areas who collaboratively plan for the students they commonly instruct
state-mandated advisory group composed of the principal, teachers, educational support staff, parents, etc; assists in the preparation and evaluation of the School Improvement Plan (SIP) and in the preparation of the school's annual budget and plan; helps school focus on setting measurable and attainable objectives
SBM team
composed of the principal, teachers, parents, and other community members; gives more power to ind. schools for decisions regarding the school budget, hiring, and job responsibility, and curriculum programs; improves teacher morale, better alignment of resources, more realistic budget setting, etc.
investigates complaints of alleged ethical and conduct violations
basic interpersonal communication skills; language skills used to communicate with others in a social environment; 6 months to 2 years to acquire
cognitive academic language proficiency; language skills required for academic achievement; 5 to 7 years to acquire
multicultural education, training, and advocacy, Inc.
Partially English Proficient
second language acquisition
League of United latin American Citizens
K-12 ELL enrolled in specifically designed classes for them
4-12 grade ELL English proficient based on testing, but reading and writing test is pending
K-12 former ELL who is followed for a 2 year period after having exited the program
exited the program more than 2 years ago
K-12 grade non ELL
state approved assessment for English language proficiency
Beginning level
below grade level spoken English
Intermediate label
below or at grade level
High Intermediate
at grade level with minimal support
at grade level
Home Language/Maintenance Bilingual Education (MBE)
ELLs are taught basic subject areas by a bilingual teacher in their native language in classes composed of only ELLs; aim is to preserve
Dual Language
Also known as two-way or developmental, the goal of these bilingual programs is for students to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in English and another language in a classroom that is usually comprised of half native English speakers and half native speakers of the other language.
Clustering of ELLs....
1) by English language ability
2) by particular grade level
ESOL instruction strategies
1) cognitive academic language learning approach
2) language experience approach
3) natural approach
4) total physical approach (TPR)
5) whole language approach
6) integrated language teaching
7) storytelling/retelling
language experience approach
based on the idea that students can produce language from firsthand experiences, and that this can be tied into written material for reading; consists of 8 steps; most important outcome is that they can read what they write
natural approach
based on Krashen's stages of language acquisition designed to develop communicative language skills through experiences with words
developed by James Asher that uses commands and physical activity to increase language retention and understanding; effective with initial language instruction
whole language approach
teaching literacy through the integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing
integrated language teaching
language learning is interwoven with instruction in the content area
Florida's formula for success
- 6 essential components of reading
- 4 assessment types (screening, diagnostic, progress monitoring, outcome)
statewide reading assessment system that provides screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring data; administered three times a year
conduct basic research. disseminate information, and provide technical assistance
web based data management system that records and reports student data from the FAIR
reading/literacy coaches
goal is to improve reading achievement in the assigned school; train teachers in using data to differentiate instruction
smallest parts of sound in a spoken word
ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and expressively; includes rate, automaticity (fluent processing of information), prosody (pitch, expression)
1) repeated and monitored reading
2) silent reading
study of how morphemes make up a word
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
orthographic knowledge
knowledge of spelling patterns

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