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CHEM EXAM Unit 1B +Merrill Atomic Structure Outline
Terms in this set (57)
Smallest particle of an element
Law of Conservation of Mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
Who proposed the law of conservation of mass?
law of definite proportions
states that, regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
What did Avogadro have to say about equal volumes of gases?
A metal strip that conducts electricity
a stream of electrons produced when a high electrical voltage is applied between two electrodes within a partially evacuated tube
That cathode rays consist of electrons
What did JJ Thompson discover about the atom?
first accurate measurement of an electrons charge
What did Millikan discover?
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
charge of an electron?
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
charge of a proton?
who discovered the proton?
What did Chadwick discover?
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
charge of a neutron?
An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
symbol for atomic number
In a neutral atom, the number of electrons is ______________ to the number of protons.
The number of __________________________determines the identity of an element.
The number of __________________________ determines the particular isotope of an element.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1) elements are composed of atoms. 2) atoms of same element are identical, but differ from other elements. 3) elements can mix together 4) atoms only change when mixed with other elements
a general term for a specific isotope of an element
protons and neutrons in the nucleus
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
Symbol for mass number
formulas for finding number of neutrons
neutrons = A-Z
Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
Alpha-particles were directed at a thin sheet of gold foil; most passed through the foil, but a few were deflected; this led to the discovery of the atomic nucleus.
the emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
an attractive force that acts between all nuclear particles that are extremely close together, such as protons and neutrons in a nucleus
A particle with the same rest mass and energy as its corresponding particle, but equal and opposite charge.
What is the antiparticle to the electron?
A fundamental particle that is not affected by the strong nuclear force.
Kinds of quarks
up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top.
hold quarks together
particles of matter that make up protons and neutrons
Greek philosopher that said all matter is made of tiny particles called "atomos" or atoms
Not based on experimental data
based his theory on others' experimental data
Billiard Ball Model
atom is a uniform, solid sphere
Billard Ball Model
All solid and dense
spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus
alpha () - positive
beta () - negative
gamma () - neutral
Cathode Ray Tube Experiments
beam of negative particles
negative particles within the atom
Plum Pudding Model
J.J Thomsons model of an atom, in which he thought electrons were randomly distributed within a positively charged cloud
Gold Foil Experiment
Discovered the nucleus
dense, positive charge in the center of the atom
Gold Foil Experiment
Conducted by Ernest Rutherford in which alpha particles that were shot at gold foil were deflected when they hit the positive center of gold atoms. The nucleus was discovered as a result of this experiment.
tried to explain presence of specific colors in hydrogen's spectrum
electrons can only exist in specific energy states
electrons move around the nucleus in fixed, circular orbits
electrons can only exist in specified energy states
Electron cloud model
orbital: region around the nucleus where e- are likely to be found
electron cloud model
model of atom in which the electrons seem to form a cloud as they move around the nucleus
neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom
based his theory on their experimental evidence
revision of chadwick's nuclear model
quantum mechanical model
the modern description, primarily mathematical, of the behavior of electrons in atoms
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
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