Cellular function

The given structures of cells and their incredible functions
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Terms in this set (...)

cell
The basic unit of structure and function in living things
cell theory
A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
nucleus
control center of the cell; contains most of the cell's DNA and the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules; surrounded by nuclear envelope composed of two membranes; nuclear membrane protects DNA
eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
cytoplasm
the portion of the cell outside the nucleus; nutrient mixture that allows movement;
organelles
structures that act like specialized organs; "little organs"
what is the role of the cell nucleus?
the nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA, and with it, the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
vacuoles
large, saclike, membrane-enclosed structures
What are the functions of vacuoles?
store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
lysosomes
small organelles filled with enzymes
What are the functions of lysosomes?
break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell; also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness
cytoskeleton
a network of protein filaments that gives eukaryotic cells their shape and internal organization
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
helps the cell maintain its shape; involved in movement
centrioles
located near the nucleus and help organize cell division; not found in plant cells; microtubules
What organelles help make and transport proteins?
proteins are assembled on ribosomes; Proteins made on the rough ER include those that will be secreted (released) from the cell as well as many membrane proteins and proteins designed for lysosomes and other specialized locations within the cell; Golgi apparatus modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
ribosomes
small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells; produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from DNA
endoplasmic reticulum
an internal membrane system contained by eukaryotic cells; ER; where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
Golgi apparatus
once proteins in eukaryotic cells are produced in the rough ER, the Golgi apparatus is the next step; organelle; appears as a stack of flattened membranes
chloroplasts
the biological equivalents of solar power plants
What are the functions of chloroplasts?
capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in photosynthesis
mitochondria
the powerhouse of the cell
What are the functions of mitochondria?
convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
cell wall
a strong supporting layer around the membrane
porous
allows materials to pass through
lipid bilayer
gives cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings
What is the function of the cell membrane?
regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell
selectively permeable
some substances can pass across a biological membrane, and some cannot.
animal cell vs. plant cell
1. Animal cell DO NOT have chloroplasts (responsible for photosynthesis), plant cells do.
2. Plant cells HAVE a cell wall (need the structure), animal cells do not.
3. Animal cells have many small vacuoles, plant cells have one central vacuole.
4. Animal cells HAVE centrioles (used for cell division), plant cells do not.