the Cell

Two main types of cells?
Prokaryotic: Bacteria cells.
Eukaryotic: Plant and animal cells.
What are organelles?
"Little organ"-specialized membrane bound structure. Each have their own job to help the cell function.
Ex: Mitochondria, Nucleus, ER.
Plasma Membrane
Surrounds the cell and regulates the flow of materials into and out of the cell. Cannot have a cell without it.
Assists with communication with other cells.
Stores genetic material.
Only in eukaryotic cells.
"Little Nuclei"
Synthesizes/makes ribosomes.
Located in nucleus.
Consists of all fluid and structures that lie inside the plasma membrane and outside of the nucleus.
Serves as a medium for metabolic reactions.
Cytosol is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm.
All cells.
DNA and its associating proteins (only found in eukaryotic cells)
Nuclear Envelope
Encloses the nucleus and regulates the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus (nuclear pore complex).
Nuclear pores allow things in or out.
DNA, RNA, and proteins in a circular form (genetic material for prokaryotic cells)
Small rings of DNA that can be used to infect other cells by carrying specific genes.
Have genes of the bacteria inside of them.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Synthesizes lipids (steroids, hormones, responsible for making cell membrane).
Does NOT have surrounding ribosomes.
Eukaryotic only.
Cell Wall
Rigid outer layer used for protection
Plant cell walls are made of cellulose
Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan
Fungal cell walls are made of chitin
Keeps cell shape (green part in picture)
Cell movement
Organelle movement
Cell division
Similar to the skeleton of a human
"Hair-like" structures used for cell movement.
Surrounding outside of cell.
Cilia are found in eukaryotic cells.
Pili are found in prokaryotic cells.
"Whip-like" structure used for movement.
One tail-like structure.
Can be found on either prokaryotic or eukaryotic, but NOT plant cells.
Bundles of microtubules that create spindle fibers, which are used for cell division.
Mostly find in animal cells.
Central Vacuole
Occupies ¾ or more of the volume of plant cells.
Storage for water, nutrients, or waste materials in plants for a long time.
Only plant cells.
Contains digestive enzymes that digest food from proteins to microorganisms.
Breaking down larger molecules, or disposing/digesting something.
Small pockets used to transport materials or store materials brought into the cell.
Transporting materials, or getting rid of/taking in.
Eukaryotic cells.
Organelles that extract energy from food molecules(sugars) and store it in the high-energy bonds of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
"Power house" of the cell.
Eukaryotic cells only.
Organelles surrounded by a double membrane that convert sunlight energy in the high-energy bonds of sugar (food) molecules.
Only plant cells, some bacteria.
Associated with photosynthesis.
A complex of RNA that synthesizes proteins.
Can be free floating in cytoplasm or around the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Studded with ribosomes.
Modifies and transports proteins made at the ribosome to the Golgi apparatus via vesicles.
Chemically modified and folded into proper three-dimensional structure.
Golgi Apparatus
Stack of flattened, interconnected sacs.
Proteins are packaged into vesicles and exported out of the cell via the plasma membrane.
Last stop for the proteins.
What two organelles are also known as the endomembrane system?
Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
What do animal and plant cells have in common?
They are eukaryotic and have organelles
What do only plant cells have?
Cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole. They are rigid and rectangular.
What do only animal cells have?
Lysosomes, flagella, centrioles, small vacuoles, cytoskeleton. They have a rounded shape.
Example of prokaryotic cell?
Example of eukaryotic cell?
Plants and animals
Prokaryotic cells
Small, no nucleus, no organelles, nucleoid, plasmid, unicellular, pili, no cytoskeleton
Eukaryotic cells
Larger in size, more complex, Nucleus, organelles, chromatin, multicellular and unicellular, cilia, cytoskeleton.
Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Ribosomes, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall, flagella, characteristics of life.
Cell theory
1. Every living organism is made up of one or more cells
2. The smallest organisms are single cells and cells are the functional units of multicellular organisms
3. All cells arise from pre-existing cells