98 terms

English Grammar I

this is english grammar because I have a psychopathic english teacher who makes it her point to make kids who cannot remember things well learn grammar repetatively. :/

Terms in this set (...)

Proper noun
name of particular person, place, or thing
proper adjective
formed by proper nouns. They are capitalized and often end in
-n, -an, -ian, -ese, -ish
What things relating to people and culture must be capitalized?
initials that stand for names, abbreviations for titles, title without name, etc
When are season's capitalized?
When they are personified
When are school courses capitalized?
When it is a language, or when it is a specific course.
Are compass direction capitalized?
only when referring to specific areas or regions
When are places capitalized? (like mountains)
Always except for the prepositions
are nationalities capitalized?
are languages capitalized?
are class levels lowercase?
a word that connects words, or a group of words
coordinating conjunction
connects words with equal importance (=)
correlative conjunction
word pairs that join words or groups of words. Example: not only...but also; either...or; neither...nor
subordinating conjunction
introduce dependent (subordinate) clauses and joins independent and dependent clauses
conjunctive adverb
used to express relationships between independent clauses
reflexive pronoun
reflecting back on the subject, like a mirror. End in -self(singular) or -selves (plural). Example:
singular : myself; yourself; himself; herself; itself
plural: ourselves; yourselves; themselves
"I saw myself in the mirror." "Can you help yourselves?"
intensive pronoun
emphasizes noun or pronoun in the same sentence E.g. "VERY unhappy" "NOT enough" "EASY to please" "NOT TOO"
indefinite pronoun
does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and "not definite." Example: all, another, any, anybody/anyone, anything, each, everybody/everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody/someone
relative pronoun
it "relates" to the word that it modifies. Example: "The person WHO phoned me last night is my teacher."
In the above example, "who":
relates to "person", which it modifies
introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"
Big FIVE: who, whom, whose, which, that
More Examples: Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession. Which is for things. In non-defining relative clauses, that is used for things. In defining relative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information) that can be used for things and people
word that describes a noun
words that modify everything, but nouns and pronouns. A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where.

Example: Generally, if a word answers the question "how," it is an adverb. If it can have an -ly added to it, place it there.

She thinks slow/slowly.
She thinks how? slowly.

NOTE: A special "-ly" rule applies when four of the senses - taste, smell, look, feel - are the verbs.
Do not ask if these senses answer the question how to determine if -ly should be attached. Instead, ask if the sense verb is being used actively. If so, use the -ly.

Roses smell sweet/sweetly.
Do the roses actively smell with noses? No, so no -ly.

The woman looked angry/angrily.
Did the woman actively look with eyes or are we describing her appearance?
We are only describing appearance, so no -ly.
simple subject
key word or words that tell what the sentence is about
simple predicate
the verb
compound subject
made up of two or more subjects that share a verb
compound verb
made up of verbs sharing a conjunction and have the same subject
compound predicate
There Is One Subject in this form.
It tell us at least two things about one subject. WARNING: Don't put a comma between two verbs in a ___. There can be more than one verb in a predicate.
"Mark despaired both finding a job, and having a decent place to live."
The verbs in this predicate are finding and having. There's no need for a comma to separate them as it separates having a decent place from Mark despaired.
More Examples: Adam lives in Bangor and speaks Welsh.
(This tell us two things about the subject (Adam).)
The telegram was late but contained exciting news.
Read more at http://www.grammar-monster.com/glossary/compound_predicate.htm#WocQ51sx1LyydYU0.99
linking verb
links subject of sentence to a word in the predicate
action verb
expresses physical or mental action
transitive verb
an action verb that expresses a doable activity. It must have a direct object, something or someone who receives the action of the verb. Example: Sylvia KICKED Juan under the table. Kicked = ____verb; Juan = direct object
intransitive verb
an action verb without a direct object
predicate nominative
completes a linking verb and renames the subject. Examples: Mr. Johanson is a teacher. (Mr. Johanson equals a teacher). Mr. Johanson is a father. (Mr. Johanson equals a father). Mr. Johanson is my neighbor. (Mr. Johanson equals my neighbor).

____ can be compound. Example: Mr. Johanson is a teacher, father, and my neighbor.
predicate adjective
describes subject by saying which one, what kind, how much, or how many. follows linking verb
direct object
word or group of words that receives the action of the verb
indirect object
word or group of words that tells to whom, to what, or for whom the action is done
verb modified to be an adjective
participial phrase
a participle extended into a phrase
prepositional phrase
a preposition, its object ,and the modifier of the object
object of the preposition
the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition
a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. Examples: "The insect, A COCKROACH, is crawling across the kitchen table."

"My 286 computer, A MODERN-DAY DINOSAUR, chews floppy disks as noisily as my brother does peanut brittle."
independent clause
a clause (subject and verb) that is a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence
dependent clause
a clause that cannot stand alone because it is not a complete thought
a piece of a sentence punctuated as if it were a full sentence. Does not contain both subject and verb
run-on sentence
two or more complete sentences written as one
conjunctive adverb
used to fix a run-on sentence, has a semi colon before and a comma following.
Examples: accordingly, also, besides
consequently, conversely, finally, furthermore, hence, however, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile
moreover, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, otherwise, similarly, still, subsequently, then, therefore, thus

A ____ can join two main clauses. In this situation, the ____behaves like a coordinating conjunction, connecting two complete ideas. Notice, however, that you need a semicolon, not a comma, to connect the two clauses here. Example: "The dark skies and distant thunder dissuaded Clarice from her afternoon run; moreover, she had thirty calculus problems to solve for her morning class."
nominative pronoun
do the actions in the sentence, he, she, it, etc
objective pronoun
form of personal pronoun. used when the pronoun functions as the direct object, indirect object, or prepositional object
modifiers before nouns
use an adjective if the word modifies the noun or pronoun, an adverb if it modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb
pronoun-antecedent agreement
must agree in gender, number, and person
noun or pronoun that a pronoun refers to or replaces
indefinite pronoun as antecedent
indefinite pronoun is the antecedent of a personal pronoun
elliptical comparison
a comparison made using "as" or "than" to begin a clause with words left out
subject- verb agreement
subject of a verb is never part of a phrase
collective noun
a group of people or things acting together
misplaced modifier
a phrase placed too far from the word it modifies making the meaning of the sentence unclear or incorrect
dangling modifier
a phrase intended to modify a word that is not in the sentence
possessive form of a singular noun or indefinite pronoun
possessive of a plural noun ending in s or es
possessive of a plural noun not ending in s
possessive of multiple nouns showing joint ownership
only add 's to the end of the final noun
possessive of multiple nouns showing individual ownership
's after all nouns
possessives of numbers, words used as words, and letters
's after
absence of numbers
apostrophe after removed numbers
absence of letters
apostrophe in between committed letters
titles of magazines, journals, newspapers, short stories, poems, book chapters, pages of a website, TV episodes, songs, etc
quotations around the title
titles of books, websites, plays, movies, TV shows, operas, dance performances, etc
italics or underline
punctuation with appositives
commas around the appositive
punctuation with conjunctive adverbs
commas around the conjunctive adverbs
punctuation with direct addresses
comma after direct address
punctuation with parenthesis
no emphasis commas, use to set apart unimportant information
punctuation of quotations within quotation
single quotations around quotes within quotes
punctuation with brackets
use for changing part of the quotation for clarification
punctuation with dashes
use when emphasizing an appositive
punctuation with hyphens
use when linking adjectives to same word for clarity
difference between alright and all right
alright is not a word, all right is
difference between all ready and already
"all ready" = completely prepared. " already" = so soon
difference between bad and badly
bad after linking verbs. badly after action verbs
difference between every day and everyday
"everyday" is an adjective, "every day" is an adjective + noun
difference between good and well
good is an adjective used to describe nouns, well is an adverb used to describe actions
difference between its and it's
"it's" is a conjunction of "it has" or or "it is", "its" is the possessive of "it"
difference between led and lead
the past tense of lead is led
the reason is because... fix
it is redundant. remove either the reason or because
difference between their, there, and they're
there - place
their - 3rd person plural possessive of "them"
they're - contraction of they are
difference between to, too, and two
to - used for the infinitive of a verb
too- as well, also
two- the number
difference between who's and whose?
who's - contraction of "who is?" or "who has?"
whose - possessive of who
difference between your and you're
your - ownership
you're - contraction of you are
when is "who" used?
when it is the subject of the sentence
when is "whom" used?
when it is the object of a verb or preposition
Comma Splice
The unjustified use of a comma between coordinate main clauses not connected by a conjunction.

Example: "Nobody goes there anymore, it's boring."

NOTES: Commas aren't meant to join main clauses all by themselves; to force them into that role is to perpetrate a comma splice. It's a period's job to separate complete sentences.
- See more at: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/comma-splice#sthash.E1w7o5YV.dpuf
- See more at: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/comma-splice#sthash.E1w7o5YV.dpuf
Used to separate two main clauses that are connected by a coordinating conjunction. That just means that when you join two things that could be sentences on their own with a word such as "and," "but," or "or," you need a ____ before the conjunction:
Squiggly ran to the forest, and Aardvark chased the peeves.
NOTES: These are the conversational voice of a friend walking by your desk
- See more at: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/dashes-parentheses-and-commas#sthash.sH2zGJTQ.dpuf
- See more at: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/comma-splice#sthash.cPx8Sv5i.dpuf
You use them to surround something that seems a bit out of place in the sentence—an aside, a clarification, or a commentary.

Example: The 30th anniversary of the eruption of Mount St. Helens (May 18, 1980) brought back vivid memories of ash and darkness.

The date (May 18, 1980) is in _____ in that sentence. It's something you want to tell the reader, but it isn't a necessary part of the sentence. If you leave it out, the reader still gets the whole point you wanted to make about revived memories because of the anniversary.

The date isn't enough of a dramatic statement to merit dashes, and if you want to leave it in, another good reason to use parentheses is that the date already contains a comma between the day and the year, so to surround it with commas would make the sentence difficult to read.

- See more at: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/dashes-parentheses-and-commas#sthash.04vZWaZ2.dpuf

NOTES: They are the quiet whisper of an aside.
- See more at: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/dashes-parentheses-and-commas#sthash.04vZWaZ2.dpuf
Interrupts the flow of the sentence and tells the reader to get ready for some important or dramatic statement.

Example: The difference between a colon and a ____ is pretty subtle: they can both serve to introduce a related element after the sentence, but a ____ is a stronger and more informal mark than a colon. Think of a colon as part of the sentence that just ambles along.
"Squiggly has two hobbies [and, now I'm going to tell you what they are, colon] cooking and bothering Aardvark."
If you added a dash to the "hobbies" sentence it would conceptually read something like this: "Squiggly has two hobbies [wait for it; wait for it; dash] cooking and bothering Aardvark." Wow!
- See more at: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/dashes-versus-colons#sthash.imN3BeIw.dpuf
The width of an m. Use this sparingly in formal writing. In informal writing, it may replace commas, semicolons, colons, and parentheses to indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought.

Example: "I pay the bills—she has all the fun."
A semicolon would be used here in formal writing.

"I need three items at the store—dog food, vegetarian chili, and cheddar cheese."
Remember, a colon would be used here in formal writing.

"I wish you would—oh, never mind."
This shows an abrupt change in thought and warrants an this punctuation mark.
Who vs. Whom
Use the he/him method to decide which word is correct.
he = who
him = whom

1. Who/Whom wrote the letter?
He wrote the letter. Therefore, "who" is correct.

2. For who/whom should I vote?
Should I vote for him? Therefore, "whom" is correct.

3. We all know who/whom pulled that prank.
This sentence contains two clauses: "We all know" and "who/whom pulled that prank." We are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom. "He" pulled that prank. Therefore, "who" is correct.

We want to know on who/whom the prank was pulled.

This sentence contains two clauses: We want to know and the prank was pulled on who/whom. Again, we are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom. The prank was pulled on him. Therefore, "whom" is correct.
Whomever vs. Whoever
"him" + "he" = "whoever"
"him" + "him" = "whomever"

Example: Omar will talk about his girlfriend with "whoever" asks him.

Explanation: "You would say, Omar will talk about his girlfriend with him. He asks Omar."

Example: Quinton will work on the project with "whomever" you suggest.

Explanation: You would say, "Quinton will work on the project with him. You suggest him."
Who vs. Which vs. That
Who = refers to people.
That and which = refer to groups or things.

"That" introduces essential clauses while "which" introduces nonessential clauses.

1. I do not trust products that claim "all natural ingredients" because this phrase can mean almost anything.

***We would not know which products were being discussed without the "that" clause.

2. The product claiming "all natural ingredients," which appeared in the Sunday newspaper, is on sale.

***The product is already identified. Therefore, which begins a nonessential clause.

NOTE: Essential clauses do not have commas surrounding them while nonessential clauses are surrounded by commas.

That is a decision "which" you must live with for the rest of your life.
Those ideas, "which" we've discussed thoroughly enough, do not need to be addressed again.

NOTE: Often, you can streamline your sentence by leaving out which.

That is a decision "which" you must live with for the rest of your life.

That is a decision you must live with for the rest of your life.
To limit or provide information about (a word or group of words).
Adverb Rules
A special "-ly" rule applies when four of the senses - taste, smell, look, feel - are the verbs. Do not ask if these senses answer the question "how" to determine if "-ly" should be attached. Instead, ask if the sense verb is being used actively. If so, use the "-ly." If the sense verb is not being used actively, don't use the "-ly."

1. The jasmine has bloomed and "smells" very sweet.

2.You drive so "slowly" that I am afraid someone will hit the car from behind.
***Generally, if a word answers the question how, it is an adverb. If it can have an "-ly" added to it, place it there.
How to Use Prepositions
Rule 1
You may end a sentence with a preposition. Just do not use extra prepositions when the meaning is clear without them.
Where did he go?
Where did he go to?

Rule 2
Use "on" with expressions that indicate the time of an occurrence.
He was born on December 23.
We will arrive on the fourth.

Rule 3
"Of" should never be used in place of have.
I should have done it.
I should of done it.

Rule 4
"Between" refers to two. "Among" is used for three or more.

Divide the candy between the two of you.
Divide the candy among the three of you.

Rule 5
The word "like" may be used as a preposition and in informal writing, as a conjunction. In formal writing, use "as," "as if," or "as though" rather than like as the conjunction.

***Prepositional usage
You look so much like your mother.
***Conjunction usage
You look like you are angry.
You look as if you are angry.