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what is the impact of air pollution on human health
estimated 2-3% of all annual deaths in the US attributed to air pollution induced respiratory or cardiovascular disease.
yopi and asthmatics tend to have increased problems.
what is atmospheric air made out of
mostly nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide.
how old are the air quality laws?
they have been around since 1963 and 1965
about 50 years old
what is smog
reduces visibility, retards crop and tree growth, impairs health. primary component of smog is ozone.
fog or haze combined with smoke or other pollutants.
what is the first case study of air pollution related deaths?
In London in 1952
4000 excess deaths amongst the elderly from heart and respiratory dx.
how is ozone different in the stratosphere vs the troposphere
Stratosphere: 6 to 30 miles above earth, contains a layer of ozone gas that protects from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-b) from the sun
troposphere: the lowest region of the atmosphere, extending from the earth's height of about 3.7-6.2 miles, which is the lower boundary of the stratosphere
how does ozone depletion occur? what is the consequence of the ozone depletion? who monitors ozone levels
Nasa monitors the ozone layers
Depletion is simply the wearing out of the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Unlike pollution which has many types and causes, ozone depletion has been pinned down to one major human activity.
Depletion occurs when chlorofluorocarbons formally found in aerosol spray cans and refrigerants are released into the atmosphere. These gases, through several chemical reactions, cause the ozone molecules to break down, reducing ozone's ultraviolet radiation absorbing capacity.
what is the montreal protocol? what is the kyoto protocol? how is the kyoto protocol different from the copenhagen accord?
Montreal: 29 nations agreed to freeze CFC usage 50% by 2000.
Kyoto protocol: clinton agreed in 1997 along with 84 nations. Bush called it dead in 2001. obama successful got 188 nations including devloping countries to agree.
how is the greenhouse effect different from the inversion layers?
Greenhouse effect prevents heat from escaping, absorbs infrared ground radiation by co2 and subsequent re radiation.
Inversion air: cool surface air trapped by overlying warm air, cool air heavier than warm air (unable rise and mix): concentrates pollutants.
how does global warming occur? what are the consequences of global warming
Occuring by the rise of carbon footprint, methane, and nitrous oxide.
some consequences are the oceans will heat up/acidify, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, increasing troposphere, shifting rainfall patterns, extreme weather events and diminishing crop yield.
what is the difference between climate change, global warming, and greenhouse effect?
climate change is the increase or decrease in the atmospheric conditions. In a specific location or the planet as a whole. global warming is the increase in global temperature causes by green house gases which come form man made pollution and emissions.
what are examples of natural and man made sources of air pollution?
Natural air pollution can be radon
fungal spores and bacteria
describe the criteria air pollutants. what does each pollutant do to the human body and to the environment?
who oversees air quality regulations in the United States? In Los Angeles?
The EPA is the people that report air quality in the United States. State air resources.
What is naaqs?
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
1. Primary standards to safeguard to human health.
2. secondary standards are more stringent than primary standards. promotes human welfare by protecting agricultural crops, livestock, poverty, and environment.
describe the hazardous air pollutants. how is it different from criteria air pollutants?
These chemicals are more hazardous than the criteria air pollutants.
Chemicals are released into the atmosphere from industries, and manufacturing process, and also motor vehicles.
what kinds of automobile emissions standards exist in california?
Cars 51 percent of CO2
34 percent of NO2
29 percent VOC
increase in SUV/Minivans/truck
allows to emit 2-3 times more pollutants than passenger cars.
what is caa? why are air pollution regulations regional?
clean air act is the first and remains the primary federal environmental law that controls air pollution from stationary and mobile sources.
What are the impacts of air pollution on human health?
synergistic effects (1+1=5)
yopi and asthmatics tend to have increased problems.
the asthmatics have increased and there are 40 percent of children being affected. the air contaminants are high. people for example children are more likely to have asthma.
who is senator inhofe? who is senator sheldon? how are their views on global warming different?
About Senator Inhofe. U.S. Senator Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) is a U.S. Army Veteran. He is the Senior of the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee and Senior Member of the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee.
Sheldon T. Whitehouse (born October 20, 1955) is an American politician and the junior United States Senator from Rhode Island, serving since 2007. He is a member of the Democratic Party and previously served as a United States Attorney from 1993 to 1998 and as the Attorney General of Rhode Island from 1999 to 2003.
describe the indoor air pollutants, its sources, and its affect on the human body
Radon causes ionizing radiation and lung cancer
Formaldehyde (known to cause skin and respiratory irritation) (these are also caused different types of cancers like nasopharyngeal, cancers, leukemia, and lymphatic system)
Biological Pollutants: can cause disease outbreaks.
There is a bacteria called Stachybotrys Chartarum this can affect human health by headaches, respiratory distress, reoccurring colds, heart palpitations, fatigue, skin rashes, and general malaise.
Environment tobacco smoke:
is indoor air quality subject to regulation?
The EPA rank indoor Quality the top 5 environmental risk. No there is no regulation on the indoor air Quality but manufacturing try to use less polluting chemicals that can harm people.
what are some concerns with air inside of an airplane
People are close within each other with increasing numbers of people flying. People are concerned with what health effects it can have on flight attendants as well as people flying. A lot of air borne contaminants enter the plane with so many people entering the plane. People also putting pesticides onto the plane and numerous of people are alarmed by this.
in general, is indoor or outdoor air cleaner?
False, outdoor air is cleaner than indoor air.
describe a dust storm. what is happening in china with dust storms? how does it affect the US?
a strong, turbulent wind that carries clouds of fine dust, soil, and sand over a large area.
Dust storms can happen in the US and be affected by the climate change that is occurring.
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