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Anatomy and physiology lecture 9 and 10
Terms in this set (63)
What is a joint aka articulation?
sites where two or more bones meet
What is the function of a joint?
give skeleton mobility and hold skeleton together, two way of classification.
Joint are the weakest part of the skeleton.
How are joints classified?
joint are classified by structure and function.
what is the structural classification of joint focuses on?
the material binding the bone together and whether or not a joint cavity. is present. Structurally , there are fibrous cartilaginous and synovial joint. Only synovial joint have a cavity.
What is the functional classification of joint focuses on?
based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint. there are synathroses, amphiarthoroses and diarthroses.
what is a synarthroses joint?
What is amphiarthroses joint?
slightly movable joint
What is diarthorses joint?
freely movable Joints
the less movable the. joint the move ?
stable it is
Freely movable joint predominate in the?
Immovable and slightly movable joint are largely restricted to
Fibrous joint are considered what type of joint
considered immovable joints
Synovial joint are considered what type of joint in general ?
What functional joint class contains the least mobile joint?
How are joint mobility and stability related?
the more stable the joint, the less mobile it is
What is a fibrous joint, what material bind the joint, is there cavity present, and what are the three type of immovable joint?
fibrous joint is join by collagen fiber of connective tissue, no joint cavity is present. The amount of movement allowed depends on the length of the connective tissue. Fibrous tissue are immovable, the three type are sutures, syndesmoses and gomphoses
What is a suture?
Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges interlock. Found only in the skull.
What is a syndesmosis?
joint held together by a ligament.
what is Gomphoses?
"peg of socket" fibrous joint periodontal ligament hold tooth in socket.
To what functional class do most fibrous joint belong?
most fibrous joint are synarthroses (immovable)
In fibrous joint, the bones are connected by?
IN cartilaginous joint, the bones are connected by?
Does cartilaginous joint have a cavity?
Are cartilaginous joint movable or not?
Not movable joint
What are two types of cartilaginous joints?
synchondroses and symphyses
What is synchondroses?
bones united by hyaline cartilage
all synchondroses are synarthrotic immovable
example, manubrium of the sternum, and costal cartilage of the ribs
What is symphyses?
bones united by fibrocartilage. Since fibrocartilage is compressible and resilient, it act as shock absorber and permit a limited amount of movement in the joint.
symphyses are amphiarthrotic joint, designed for strength with flexibility. example are intervertebral joint and pubic symphyses.
which of the following correctly list the 3 structural types of joints?
fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial
Even is 25 years old. Would you expect to find synchondroses at the end of the femur?
could not have synchondroses at end of demure by age 25 epiphyseal plate have used and become synostoses.
Synovial joint have a?
fluid-filled joint cavity
-are those in which the articulating bones are separated by fluid-containing joint cavity. , are diarthorises 9 movable joints)
What are the 6 general features of synovial joints?
1) articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)-- cover the opposing bone surface, keep the bones ends from being crushed.
2) Joint (articular) cavity- small a space that contains a small amount of synovial fluid.
3) Articular capsule- external fibrous layer composed of dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the peiostea of the articulating bone.
inner layer of the joint capsule is the synovial membrane- composed of loose connective tissue (make synovial fluid- via blood)
4) Synovial fluids- white slippery- derived from blood- slipper fluid occupy all free spaces within the joint capsule. , reduce friction between cartilages without this lubrication, rubbing would wear away joint surfaces and excessive friction could overheat and destroy joint tissue.
5) Reinforcing ligaments - Strengthen joints (Ligaments) ---synovial fluid strengthen by sandlike ligaments, most open are capsular ligament, thickened part of fibrous layer, found outside of capsule.
6) Nerve and blood vessels- capillary beds, important for synovial membrane, richly supplied with sensory nerves fivers that innervate the capsule. fibrous detect pain.
what is the function of synovial membrane?
to make synovial fluids
what 2 features is the structural classification of a joint based off of?
joint are classified based of binding material and presence of a joint cavity.
Are buries and tendon sheath strictly part of synovial joints?
no they are found closely associated with them.
what Isi a bursea?
flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane containing a thin film of synovial fluid. They occur where ligament, muscle, skin, tendons or bones rub together.
-another definition -- a small, fluid filled sac lined by a synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of fluid (synovial fluid) with the consistency of raw egg white.
What is a tendon sheath?
an elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction
What are three factors that influence the stability of synovial joint?
the shape of the articular surfaces (round, more stable), the number and positioning of ligament (more ligament stable)
Ligament connect bone to bone and muscle tone.
the should is one with the most?
protection of tendon sheath and buries, and most movable joint in the body.
Synovial joint are the most ?
What are the movement allowed by synovial joint?
1) nonaxial- no movement carpel and tarsals
2) Uniaxial- movement in one plane- elbow, only in one direciton
3) Biaxial- movement in two place ex thumb
4) Multiaxial--movement in or around- shoulder and hip
wha are the three types of movement of synovial joint?
1), Gliding- joint in carpals or tarsals
2) Angular movement- flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction ( away from midline), adduction, circumduction- increased or decreased angle between two bones
3) rotation- medial and lateral
What are 6 types of synovial joints?
- categories based.on shape of articular surface and movement joint is capable of
1) Plane- nonaxial (gliding)- tarsals, carpals
2) Hinge- uniaxial- elbow, fingers
3) Pivot- Uniaxial C1 and C2, elbow
4) Condylar- -Biaxial- knuckles, wrist joint and mandible.
5) Saddle -Biaxial- Thumb joint
6) Ball-and socket- multiracial- shoulder joint, hip joint
The most common form of chronic arthritis is?
What is a rare type of arthritis?
Cartilage tear is?
those who overuse carious form of exercise may end up feeling the snap and pop of their overstressed cartilage, common in young atheist.
Treatment -- graphing to repair the exposure of the bones against each other
What is a sprain?
ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn, common site are ankle, knee, and lumbar region of spine, poorly healed cause poorly vascuarzlied.
stay off the injury,
allow time to rest and repair.
bones are forced out of alignment. , inflammation, swelling, result from falls, sports,
pop it back in place, if ligament, tendon not damaged,
What is bursitis?
inflammation of bursa and usually caused by a blow or friction., falling on one knee
Treatment: anti-inflammatory drug to bring down inflammation and stay off it
What is tendonitis?
inflammation of tendon sheaths, typically caused by overuse. It symptoms (pain and swelling) and
Treatment (rest, and anti inflammatory drug.
What is arthritis?
100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage joints, most widespread, crippling disease, acute forms and chornic forms
Acute form caused by---- bacteria getting into the joint , cavity body react by swelling,
Chronic form include: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis.
treatment: pain killers
Gouty arthritis--- prevalent in males, joint cavity a build up of uric acid, fixed with dict.
Abundant in male
most common chronic arthritis, often called "wear and tear arthritis".
prevalent in the aged
irreversible ( degenerative)
by 85, more than half American will have it
treatment: Tylenol, Advil, Motrin (releve pain)
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is?
Begin with the inflammation of the synovial membrane, inflamed synovial membrane thickens into a panes
chronic inflammatory disorder.
arises between age 30 and 50, but can occur at any age. Affect women three time as men.
The course of RA is variable and marked by flare-up (exacerbation and remissions), pain swelling may include anemia, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and cardiovascular problem.
is an autoImmune disease-- response cone to attach, attach body own cells.
Unknown why it occur in women, but bacteria and viruses are suspects.
occur at age 40 - 50
steroidal and non steroidal treatment , increase joint mobility,
biological agent are available to block inflammatory chemicals.
Replace a joint with artificial joint.
Lyme disease is?
inflammatory disease caused by spirochete bacteria , by the bite of ticks that live on mice and deer. (borrelia burgodorferi)
Result in joint pain and arhtritis, especially in the knees
Characterized by skin rash, flu-like symptoms, and foggy thinking. if untreated neurological disorders and irregular heartbeat may ensue.
Sine symptoms vary from person to person, disease is hard to diagnose, antibiotic therapy is usual treatment, but takes long time to kill infecting bacteria.
What does the term arthritis mean?
means inflammation of the joint
how would you determine by looking at someone suffering from arthritis if he or she has OA or RA?
Ra typically produce pain, swelling joint and joint deformation and tend to be bilateral and crippling. QA patient tend to have pain, particularly on arising, relived by gentle exercise.
Anatomical characteristic share by all synovial joint include all except?
a) articular cartilage
b) a joint cavity
c) an articular capsule
d)presence of fibrocartilage>>>>>>
Factor that influence the stability of a synovial joint include?
a) shape of articular surfaces
b) presence of strong reinforcing ligaments
c) tone surrounding muscles
d) all of these>>>>
The description "articular surfaces deep and secure, capsule heavily reinforced by ligament and muscle tendons, extremely stable joint" best describe?
a) elbow joint
c) knee joint
d) shoulder joint
a) twisting of the ankle
b) tearing of ligaments
c) displacement of a bone
d) immobility of a joint due to fusion of its articular surfaces.>>>>
an autoimmune disorder in which joints are affected bilaterally and which involves panes formation a nd gradual joint immobilization is?
Discuss the relative value (to body homeostasis) of immovable, slightly movable, and freely movable joints
Freely movable joints provide mobility; slightly movable joints provide strength with limited flexibility; immovable joints provide strong support, secure enclosures, and
What is the specific role of the menisci of the knee? of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments?
The knee menisci deepen the articulating surface of the tibia to prevent side-to-side rocking of the femur on the tibia and to absorb shock transmitted to the knee joint. The cruciate ligaments prevent anterior/posterior displacement of the articulating bone and help to secure the joint.
List the function of the following elements of synovial joint, fibrous layer of the capsule, synovial fluid, and articular cartilage?
The fibrous layer, composed of dense irregular connective tissue, is the external layer of the articular capsule and strengthens the joint so that the bones are not pulled apart. Synovial fluid occupies all free spaces within the articular capsule, including that within the articular cartilages, and serves to reduce friction between the cartilages. Synovial fluid also contains phagocytic cells that rid the joint cavity of microbes or cellular debris. Articular cartilage is glassy-smooth hyaline cartilage that covers the opposing bone
surfaces. These thin, spongy cushions absorb compression placed on the joint, keeping bone ends from being crushed.
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