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exam 2 study guide forest bio
Terms in this set (75)
what are the four main functions of the trunk and branches?
1. structure and support
2. competitive advantage
4. phloem- transpiration
what is another name for the main stem of a sapling or mature tree (tree trunk)?
what are the three ways to view the bike of a tree?
1. cross section
2. radial section
3. tangential section
a flat sawn board is cut from the ___________________ section of wood
a quarter sawn board is cut from the ___________________ section of wood
radial (more expensive)
what component of the trunk makes the grain we see the "grain" we see in hoards?
xylem or sapwood
______________ cells are formed to the inside of the vascular cambium, while ______________ cells are formed to the outside of the vascular cambium
the xylem cells that are formed right after trees break dormancy, often called _________________ are larger in diameter and have lower density wood due to excess water availability in the spring
the xylem cells that are formed before trees enter dormancy, often called _________________ are smaller in diameter and have a higher density wood due to little water availability
the xylem is composed of the ________________ and _________________
heartwood and sapwood
the xylem is responsible for __________________ in trees, moving water upward from the roots via negative pressure
how to xylem cells transport water during transpiration?
the xylem is ____________ at functional maturity
how is water transported by the xylem?
cohesion tension theory
angiosperms and gymnosperms differ in ________________ xylem elements
what are the two longitudinal xylem elements found in gymnosperms?
tracheids and parenchyma
gymnosperms use _________ to transfer water between tracheids
what is the main transverse element found in gymnosperms?
_____________________ store carbs and transport water radially across the trunk
what are the two types of rays found in the xylem of gymnosperms?
1. narrow rays
2. wide fusiform rays
gymnosperms exhibit what kind of growth rings? (unlike angiosperms)
a component of gymnosperm xylem that is unique and not found in angiosperms are the ______________________, which are filled with sap that is used to repel insects
what are the four longitudinal xylem elements found in angiosperms?
__________________ are the primary water-conducting cells in angiosperms
which longitudinal element makes up the bulk of angiosperm xylem?
what is the main transverse element found in angiosperms
angiosperms exhibit two major types of growth rings, what are they?
ring porous and diffuse porous
what are the three sieve elements found in angiosperms elements?
1. sieve plates
2. sieve tubes
3. companion cells
______________________ are found between sieve tubes in angiosperms and have perforated walls, which allows transfer of sap through sieve tubes
________________________________ in angiosperms contain nuclei and are attached to sieve tubes to help them continue functioning
what is the heartwood composed of?
do all species form heartwood?
what is the main function of the heartwood?
support the tree
is the presence of heartwood in trees always bad in terms of wood products?
no! sometimes is pretty
phloem is responsible for ___________________ in trees, moving food (sap) around inside the trunk via positive pressure
how to phloem tissues transport food during translocation?
does phloem growth produce true early and late season rings like that seen in the sapwood?
no because the old deteriorates
what are the two main components of the phloem in both angiosperms
1. sieve elements
2. matrix of parenchyma and fibers
do sieve elements have a nucleus?
what join the xylem and phloem tissues and allow food storage and is used for growth in the spring or as a surplus for when conditions are poor?
what is the main sugar component that is found in tree sap?
what are the 4 major steps that take place during translocation?
1. loading of sugar
2. uptake of water
3. unloading of sugar
4. recycling of water
what is a trees most limiting factor
water supply is linked to which two factors?
1. growth rate
2. wood density
what type of wood has wide or abundant xylem tubes (tracheids or vessels), which delivers more water to growing portions of the tree and thus, allows the tree to grow faster?
low density wood
which type of wood has maroon or few xylem tubes (tracheids or vessels), which delivers less water to growing portions of the tree, resulting in a slower-growing tree
high density wood
non-functional circular vessels
allows water to get to the top of the trees
why is having air in the xylem a problem for trees?
it's like a staw with a hole in it
what are two ways trees adapted to get water to the top branches?
1. xylem cells narrow towards the tops of the trees
2. large portion of xylem w/ the lead area
the bark is considered...
all tissues outside of the vascular cambium
what tissue makes up the inner bark?
what tissues/components make up the outer bark?
cork cambium and cork
four main layers typically found in nature bark
3. phellogen (cork cambium)
4. phillum (cork)
what contains chlorophyll and acts as a secondary cortex, allowing photosynthesis to occur in the twigs and bark of some trees?
cork cambium aka
cork and cork cambium make up
does cork form in monocots and dicots?
no- only dicots and even then some do not form at all... keep epidermis and cortex layers throughout their lifetime -results in smooth thin bark
what are some of the main functions of the cork layer in trees?
1. impervious to liquid and gas
2. protection from mechanical injury
cork growth is water proof and gas proof, which often inhibits gas exchange through the trunk. how have trees compensated for this?
lentisels and texture (flakey, furrowed, shreddy)
the _____________ xylem and phloem is considered all the vascular tissues that are formed after the tree begins to form bark
where does most of a trees diameter growth occur?
why do trees have ridges, plates, or flaky bark?
it's a response to the tree getting fatter (diameter growth)
_________________ wood is structurally different from normal wood and is formed in weak areas of the trunk or branches to maintain vertical orientation
what type of tree forms tension wood- a type of reaction wood that forms on the top of a leaning trunk or branch, pulling the tree upright
tension wood is controlled by which two hormones?
auxin and gibberelin
compresssion wood is controlled by which two hormones?
auxin and ethylene
which type of tree forms compression wood- a type of reaction wood that forms on the underside of a leaning trunk or branch, pushing the tree upright
what are burls? what causes them?
1. outgrowths on trees caused by disruptions in cambium
2. insects, bacteria, viruses, bud masses
what is a canker and what causes them?
1. "open wound" -isolated dead areas on trees
what is a gall and what causes them?
1. abnormal growths on leaves, twigs, roots etc
2. insects or infection
what is a spike knot?
buried, tapered portion of new branch in the middle of the tree
what are the main internal factors that affect tree growth?
1. size limitations
what are some external factors that affect tree growth?
2. water and drought
3. carbon dioxide
5. cold temps
6. heat and fire
9. disease, insects, fungi
trees dont heal, they _____________!
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