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Psychology 206 chapter 7 and 9 test
Terms in this set (66)
pioneer in intelligence (IQ) tests, designed a test to identify slow learners in need of help-not applicable in the U.S. because it was too culture-bound (French)
intelligence; found that specific mental talents were highly correlated, concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled 'g' (general ability)
devised theory of multiple intelligences: logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic
American social psychologist best known for his work on stereotype threat
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new information
an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
a mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
intelligence; devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)
the process of finding solutions to difficult or complex issues.
revised Binet's I.Q. test and established norms for American children
trial and error
A problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.
the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
measures how much a person has learned in a given subject or area
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
Louis L. Thurstone
American psychologist who advanced the theory that intelligence is composed of several primary mental abilities and cannot be accurately described by an overall general or g factor measure.
Developed WAIS and WISC (IQ tests)
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
g factor (general intelligence)
the notion of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person's overall performance on tests of mental ability
Autism Spectrum Disorder
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors
The ability to make or bring a new concept or idea into existence; marked by the ability or power to create.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Mary Salter Ainsworth
American psychologist who devised the Strange Situation procedure to measure attachment; contributed to attachment theory
moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Known for his theory of cognitive development in children
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
zone of proximal development
In Vygotsky's theory, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they recieve proper guidance and instruction
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
A research design in which hereditary influence is assessed by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait.
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
debate among scholars as to whether human development is influenced mainly by genes (nature) or environment (nurture)
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
Stages of death (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance)
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research
1902-1994; Field: neo-Freudian, humanistic; Contributions: created an 8-stage theory to show how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong
unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells
Authoritarian parenting style
parents place a high value on conformity and obedience, are often rigid, and express little warmth to the child
first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining
permissive parenting style
a parenting style that allows freedom, lax parenting that doesn't set limits or enforce rules constantly
the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop
authoritative parenting style
parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making
the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
a theory about how our early attachments with our parents shape our relationships for the rest of our lives
one's sense of being male or female
the enduring characteristics with which each person is born
the words that are understood by an infant or child
the words that an infant or child understands and can speak
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
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