Upgrade to remove ads
Anth 102 exam 2
Terms in this set (99)
In biological taxonomy, same thing as a subspecies; when applied to humans, sometimes incorporates both cultural and biological factors
Group of local populations that share part of the geographic range of a species, and can be differentiated from other subspecies based on one or more phenotypic traits
origin from more than one ancestral species or line
a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation
(species) consists of a number of separate breeding populations, each varying in some genetic trait
two or more distinct phenotypes (at the genetic or anatomical levels) that exist within a population. Has to occur more than 1%
Genetic drift and founder effect
The accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that has become isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers.
Gene flow and convergence
Transfer of genes across population boundaries (blood types)
Heritable change in structure or amount of DNA (Sickle-cell anemia, Huntington's disease, down syndrome)
A mathematical model in population genetics that reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes.
all the genetic information in the breeding population
Calculating allele frequencies
By gene counting: p = f(A) = (2 X count of AA)+(count of Aa)/(2 X N) where N = total number of individuals
Populations that are clearly isolated geographically or socially from other breeding groups
breeding from closely related people or animals
ABO blood group
the classification of human blood cells (erythrocytes) as determined by the presence or absence of the antigens A and B, which are carried on the surface of red cells.
Rh blood group
(rhesus) blood type system that can cause hemolytic anemia of the newborn through maternal-fetal incompatibility if the mother is rh-neg and the child is rh-pos
occurs when the mother produces antibodies against an antigen expressed in the fetus that she does not possess
A gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next.
cerumen (ear wax) (geographic variation)
red-green color blindness (geographic variation)
DZ and MZ twinning rates (geographic variation)
A genetic blood disease in which the red blood cells become deformed sickle-shaped, decreasing their ability to carry oxygen to tissues.
Situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a specific gene in a population
G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency)
AN enzyme that aids in the proper functioning of red blood cells; its deficiency, a genetic condition, leads to hemolytic anemia. (malaria, more common in males than females)
The maintenance of the internal environment of an organism within an acceptable range.
a distorting action/force that arises from the environment that produces a deviation from homeostasis in an individual organism
the actual state of displacement or deviation from homeostasis in an individual (hypothermia)
Process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.
a region of the forebrain below the thalamus that coordinates both the autonomic nervous system ad the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic systems and involved in sleep and emotional activity.
the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel alls, in particular the large veins, large arteries, and smaller arterioles. The process is the opposite of vasoconstriction which is the narrowing of the blood vessels.
base metabolic rate, defined as the rate at which your body uses energy when you are resting in order to keep vital functions going such as breathing, the maintenance of body heat.
Lewis Hunting reflex
a process of altering vasoconstriction and vasodilation in extremities exposed to cold.
The principle that an animal's size is heat-related; smaller bodies re adapted to hot environments, and larger bodies are adapted to cold environments.
The principle that an animal's limb lengths are heat-related; limbs are longer in hot environments and are shorter in cold environments
A condition in which and organism's body temperature falls below the normal range, which may lead to the loss of proper body functions and even eventually, death
the subcutaneous tissue layer also functions to help keep the body's temperature stable. It acts as a passageway for ht nerves and blood vessels from the dermis to the muscles and helps to protect ht bones and muscles from damage
a type of energy that comes to Earth from the Sun, can damage skin and cause cancer, and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer
(thickening of the skin) a functional adaptation to solar radiation.
A brown pigment that determines the darkness or lightness of a human's skin color due to its concentration in the skin
Essential for the absorption of calcium and the prevention of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
a yellow pigment, fibrous protein forming the main structural components of hair, feathers, hooves, claws, horns etc.
altitude sickness, deficiency in the amount of oxygen
the process by which oxygen is absorbed by red blood cells through hemoglobin in the lungs and carries to the peripheral tissues.
the ration of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.
the maximum volume of air that can be voluntarily exhaled.
fertility and mortality
lemurs, lorises, tarsiers
(Madagascar) 18.104.22.168 Found on the island of Madagascar off southeast coast of Africa, they became extinct elsewhere in the world. Larger lemurs are diurnal and eat vegetable foods, smaller lemurs are nocturnal and insectivorous. Some species are arboreal while others are semi-terrestrial. Dental combs, and toilet claws. Moist rhinaria and tactile vibrisse
(Africa and Asia) 22.214.171.124 Found in tropical forests and woodland of India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia while Galapagod and Pottos are in Africa. Use a climbing form of qudrupedalism. Some are insectivorous, other supplement with fruit, gums, slugs, etc. Females frequently form associations for foraging or in sharing the same sleeping nest.
(Asia) 126.96.36.199: Small nocturnal primates found on the islands of southeast Asia. Deep roots in fossil record but limited diversity among living forms. Eat insects and small vertebrates. The basic social pattern appears to be a family unit consisting of a mated pair and their offspring
(monkeys, apes, and humans aka haplorhines)
New World Monkeys ; Round, sideways facing nostrils, South America 188.8.131.52 or 184.108.40.206
spiders, howlers, squirrels, uakari
-Marmosets & tamarins
-smallest of NWM
-claws instead of nails (cling to vertical tree trunks while feeding on gum)
-only have 2 molars while all other have 3 (2132)
-birth to twins (paternal twins) CAN have two different fathers
-extensive pre natal care
-polyandrous social system
Old World Monkeys, Apes, 220.127.116.11 most are quadrupedal and arboreal; other have adapted to life on the ground. All have narrow nasal septa. In contrast to apes, molars are bilophodont
old world monkeys. tails, large brains, adaptations for quadrupedalism, bilophodont molars (4 crests)
apes and humans 18.104.22.168
gibbons and simangs Found in tropical areas of Southeast Asia. Locomotor adaptations for brachiation may be related to feeding behavior while hanging from branches. Diet is largely fruit with supplements of leaves, flowers, and insects. Males and females are territorial and delineate their territories with whoops and "songs".
orangutans in Asia; gorillas and chimps in Africa
Found heavily forested areas of Borneo and Sumatra. Slow cautious and mostly completely arboreal. Large animals with pronounces dimorphism. Solitary Principally frugivorous (feed-eating)
The largest living primate confined to forested regions of central Africa. Exhibit marked sexual dimorphism. Primarily terrestrial, employing a semi-quadrupedal posture called knuckle walking. Live in groups that consist of one large silverback males, a few adult females, and their subadult offspring
Found in equatorial Africa. Anatomically similar to gorillas particularly in limb proportions and upper-body shape. Locomotion includes knuckle-waling on the ground and brachiation in the trees. Eat a variety of plans and animal foods. Large communities of as many as 50 individuals.
Only found in an area south of the Zaire River. Their population is believed to only number a few thousand individuals. Exploit many of the same foods as chimps, including occasional small mammals. Male-female bonds constitute the societal core. Bonobo sexuality includes frequent copulations that occur throughout the female's estrous cycle.
(fossil and modern humans) large body size, absence of tail, shortened trunk, more complex behavior, more complex brain and enhanced cognitive abilities, increased period of infant development and dependency, Y-5 miler pattern
Refers to those organisms that normally are awake and active during daylight hours
Refers to those organisms that are awake and active during the night
the single perception of a slightly different image from each eye, resulting in depth perception
The quality of an appendage or organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. (hands and tails)
seed and grass eating
living in forest or woodland habitats
lives on the ground
divides body into left and right
an occlusal or incised eminence of a tooth. Canine teeth (cusoids) each possess a single cusp, while premolars (bicuspbids) possess two molars normally possess either four or five cusps
A difference in a physical attribute between the males and females of a species
a recurring period of sexual receptivity and fertility in many female mammals.
Just about all of them (except humans). Red colobus. Reasons: Habitat Destruction, Human Hunting, Live capture for export or local trade, human population growth.
Five monkeys species of Kibale Forest
red colobus, black-and-white colobus, retail monkeys, blue monkeys, mangabeys
occurring within the same geographical area, overlapping distribution
the area where a primate lives permanently. Within this is the core area that a primate might defend
tending to return to or remain near a particular site or area
many primate societies are organized into dominance hierarchies; impose a degree of order within the group, dominant animals have priority access to food and mating partners, sex, age, level of aggression, time spent in the group, intelligence, motivation, and the mothers social position
Darwin's principle of antithesis
much like other traits found in animals, emotions also evolved and were adapted over time. Primal emotions (fear) are associated with ancient parts of the brain, filial emotions (mother's love for offspring) evolved in early mammals, social emotions (guilt, pride) evolved among social primates.
r-selected and K-selected
K-selected species possess relatively stable populations and tend to produce relatively low numbers of offspring, individual offspring tend to be quite large in comparison to r-selected species. r-selected species are those that emphasize high growth rates, typically exploit less-crowed ecological niches, and produce many offspring, each of which has a relatively low probability of surviving to adulthood.
is a term used to classify any form of parental care provided by an individual towards a non-descendent young.
an evolutionary increase in the complexity or relative size of the brain, involving a shift of function from non-cortical parts of the brain to the cortex
the growth of body parts at different rates, resulting in a change of body proportions
Hayes' and Vicki:
Catherine and Keith Hayes 1947, study lasted for 6 1/2 years; taught with difficulty to pronounce a few words such as mama and papa. Conclusion was that human speech was very hard for a chimpanzee to master
Gardners and Washoe
Beatrice and Allan Gardner 1966 study lasted for 4 1/4 years; Tested linguistic ability of Washoe using American Sign Language. Proved two-way communication between humans and chimpanzees to be possible
Premack and Sara
Ann and David Premack 1966 study lasted for 1 1/2 years; Use of polastic symbols in different shapes and sizes to denote words. Language capability comparable to a 2 1/2 year old was attained
Rumbaugh and Lana
Duane Rumbaugh 1970 ongoing; Computer controlled, lighted keyboard translating color-coded symbols into vocabulary
Patterson and Koko
Francine Patterson 1971 ongoing; Taught Koko and Michael more than 500 American Sign Language signs
Broca's Wernicke's areas of brain
the cortical areas specialized for production and conprehension respectively, of human language. Broca's area is found in the left inferior frontal gyrus and Wernicke's area is located in the left posterior superior temporal gyru
the act of spreading something, especially information, widely; circulation
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Anthropology exam #1 (6-9)
Anthropology Herrmann Exam 2
Biological Anthropology - Midterm #1
Anthropology 2414 Exam 2 McKeown
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Span 212 Final study guide
Art 365 Final Study Guide
Spanish 212 Exam 2
Art 365 Midterm Quote Identification