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Biology Fundamental of Genetics
Terms in this set (25)
the study of heredity
the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
specific characteristic of an individual
An alternative form of a gene.
an organism's genetic makeup
an organism's appearance
when each allele of a genotype is different
when both alleles of a genotype are the same
a punnett square where only one characteristic is tracked
a punnett square where two characteristics are tracked
when one allele is completely dominant over another
when the phenotype of an offspring is an intermediate between the parental phenotypes
when both alleles for a gene are expressed in an individual
Describe Mendel's significant discoveries about genetics during his garden pea experiments?
-He observed that all the flowers were purple in the F generation which is the generation that contains offspring of the P generation
-led him to the conclusion that there are two different variations of a trait and some become visible at certain times
-gave evidence that there were two alleles, which are alternative forms of a gene for every trait --He observed that 75% of the plants had purple flowers, while 25% had white flowers in the F2 generation which is the generation that contains offspring of the F1 generation
Steps of Mendel's garden pea experiments?
-Planted seeds produced by the fertilized plant and let them grow
-Plant the seeds the F1 generation produced and let them grow
Differences between P, F1, and F2 generations?
-P generation-parent generation.
-F1 stands for the first filial generation that was obtained on cross pollinating the parent plants.
-F2 stands for the second filial generation that is obtained by self pollinating the F1 generation plants.
Compare and Contrast Dominant and recessive traits
Dominant- the allele that is fully expressed
Recessive- the allele the is sometimes masked
What do capitalized and lowercase allele represent
Explain the laws of Mendel
-Laws of Segregation: states that pair of factors is segregated during the formation of gametes
-Law of Independent Assortment: states that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes
Compare and Contrast genotype and phenotype
A genotype in an organism's genetic makeup
A phenotype in an organism's appearance
Compare and Contrast Heterozygous and Homozygous
-Heterozygous: is when each allele of a genotype is different
-Homozygous: is when both alleles of a genotype are the same
How to calculate probablity and Construct a punnett square
Compare and Contrast between Monohybrid and Dihybrid Cross
-Monohybrid: a punnett square where only one characteristic is tracked
-Dihybrid Cross: a punnett square where two characteristics are tracked
Genotype and Phenotype Ration
-Genotype ratio: ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring
-Phenotype ratio: ratio of phenotypes of offspring
Dofferences between the Dominance
-Complete dominance- when one allele is completely dominant over another
-Incomplete dominance: when the phenotype of an offspring is an intermediate between the parental phenotypes
-Codominance: when both alleles for a gene are expressed in an individual
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