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6.1 - The Jacksonian Era (Industrial Revolution)
Terms in this set (27)
Entrepreneur who built the Erie Canal.
Canal that connected the Hudson River to the Great Lakes across New York State. It was completed in 1825 and helped establish New York City as the financial capital of nation and allowed New Englanders to easily settle the Midwest.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
First major railroad company in the United States.
Entrepreneur who built the first commercially successful steamboat. His ship, the Clermont, sailed between New York City and Albany along the Hudson River.
Inventor of a horse-drawn reaper. His company became a major producer of farm equipment.
Inventor of a riding plow that allowed farmers to turn thick prairie soil into profitable farmland.
Inventor of the telegraph and the code that bears his name.
Major American telegraph company.
Inventor of vulcanization, a chemical process that for treating rubber so that it could be used in both hot and cold conditions.
Inventor who pioneered the use of interchangeable parts and invented the cotton gin.
Pieced of a finished product that are standardized so that one piece could be swapped out for an identical replacement part. Before Eli Whitney made use of this system, everything was made by craftsmen and any broken piece required a hand-crafted replacement.
Inventor of a sewing machine in 1846.
Entrepreneur who opened the first factory in America. He learned the textile industry in England and replicated it in the United States.
A long, gradual change in both Europe and America away from small-scale production based on human and horsepower toward the use of machines, factories, and steam/coal power.
The business of turning raw cotton into thread, then into cloth, and finally into finished products such as clothing.
A form of business in which investors are only liable up to the amount they invested.
Frances Cabot Lowell
Entrepreneur of the early Industrial Revolution. He opened the Boston Manufacturing Company and integrated all steps of the textile industry.
Unmarried young women who worked in the Lowell Mills in Massachusetts. They were paid well and lived in a company town, but had strict limitations on behavior.
A shift in the way Americans produced and consumed products. Over the course of the early 1800s, improvements in transportation and communication made it possible to originate a produce in one place and then move it far away to sell. This was a major shift away from subsistence farming.
Great Irish Potato Famine
A massive famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 that drove waves of immigration of impoverished Irish to America.
Belief that people born in a county are better than immigrants.
Known Nothing Party
Political party that was active in the 1850s. They promoted nativist policies in response to increased immigration, especially by Catholic Irish and Germans. They were renamed the American Party.
American statesman who served as Secretary of State and Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was the leading Whig politician of the early 1800s, championed the needs of the West, and was the organizer of a series of political compromises that kept the nation together before the Civil War. His economic ideas were dubbed the American System.
Henry Clay's economic proposals. These included a protective tariff, a national bank, and federally-funded internal improvements such as canals and railroads.
A federally-funded road that connected Maryland and Illinois. It was a project built as part of Henry Clay's American system in the early 1800s.
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Canal connecting Washington, DC and Ohio. It was a project funded in party of Henry Clay's American system in the early 1800s.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed in 1828 under John Quincy Adams. It was part of Henry Clay's American System but disproportionately favored northern manufacturers and hurt southern consumers.
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